Monday, 1 of May of 2017

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Moss Agate

We currently have some great deals on Moss Agate gems and jewellery. Please check out the listings below to find the best buys for your Moss Agate today.


168Cts Elegant Designer Moss Agate 23X16X6X mm Loose Gemstone
168Cts Elegant Designer Moss Agate 23X16X6X mm Loose Gemstone
$4.99
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $4.99

Size 95 Carved Moss Agate RING CJ300074
Size 95 Carved Moss Agate RING CJ300074
$9.90
Time Remaining: 30m

Moss Agate 55x37x7 mm Pendant bead DA004008
Moss Agate 55x37x7 mm Pendant bead DA004008
$2.99
Time Remaining: 31m

Gold Moss Agate Lapidary Rough 2 lb 13 oz   893
Gold Moss Agate Lapidary Rough 2 lb 13 oz 893
$9.99
Time Remaining: 32m
Buy It Now for only: $9.99

AMAZING DESIGN PENDANT MOSS AGATE GEMSTONE 925 STERLING SILVER OVERLAY
AMAZING DESIGN PENDANT MOSS AGATE GEMSTONE 925 STERLING SILVER OVERLAY
$4.99
Time Remaining: 34m

3275Cts 100 NATURAL FOREST GREEN MOSS AGATE OVAL CUT UNTREATED LOOSE GEMSTONES
3275Cts 100 NATURAL FOREST GREEN MOSS AGATE OVAL CUT UNTREATED LOOSE GEMSTONES
$4.99
Time Remaining: 34m
Buy It Now for only: $4.99

4485Cts Natural Forest Green Moss Agate Cab AAA Seaweed Designer Oval Cabochon
4485Cts Natural Forest Green Moss Agate Cab AAA Seaweed Designer Oval Cabochon
$4.99
Time Remaining: 34m
Buy It Now for only: $4.99

14060Cts100NATURAL GREEN MOSS AGATE SLAB ROUGH FANCY CABOCHON TOP GEMSTONES
14060Cts100NATURAL GREEN MOSS AGATE SLAB ROUGH FANCY CABOCHON TOP GEMSTONES
$5.99
Time Remaining: 36m
Buy It Now for only: $5.99

VINTAGE MOSS AGATE WITH GOLDTONE METAL SETTING ASIAN STYLE PENDANT
VINTAGE MOSS AGATE WITH GOLDTONE METAL SETTING ASIAN STYLE PENDANT
$14.63
Time Remaining: 36m
Buy It Now for only: $14.63

7110CtsNatural Green Moss Agate Gemstones Forest Seaweed Designer Oval Cab
7110CtsNatural Green Moss Agate Gemstones Forest Seaweed Designer Oval Cab
$6.99
Time Remaining: 37m

Moss Agate 47x47x6 mm Pendant bead CD001105
Moss Agate 47x47x6 mm Pendant bead CD001105
$2.99
Time Remaining: 38m

56x37x7mm green moss agate teardrop pendant bead C25613
56x37x7mm green moss agate teardrop pendant bead C25613
$0.07 (2 Bids)
Time Remaining: 40m

925 Sterling Silver Plated Moss Agate Gemstone Women Pendant NPG 00207
925 Sterling Silver Plated Moss Agate Gemstone Women Pendant NPG 00207
$4.98
Time Remaining: 40m
Buy It Now for only: $4.98

AWESOME  925 Sterling Silver Overlay Moss Agate Gemstone Women Ring
AWESOME 925 Sterling Silver Overlay Moss Agate Gemstone Women Ring
$0.99
Time Remaining: 40m

ANGELIC  925 Silver Plated Moss Agate Gemstone Women Pendant 60 MM
ANGELIC 925 Silver Plated Moss Agate Gemstone Women Pendant 60 MM
$3.99
Time Remaining: 40m
Buy It Now for only: $3.99

OVAL CABOCHON GEMSTONE 3145cts EXCLUSIVE A+ NATURAL DESIGNER GREEN MOSS AGATE
OVAL CABOCHON GEMSTONE 3145cts EXCLUSIVE A+ NATURAL DESIGNER GREEN MOSS AGATE
$3.99
Time Remaining: 46m
Buy It Now for only: $3.99

PK14650 MOSS AGATE+GREEN AMETHYST  925 STERLING SILVER PENDANT 25
PK14650 MOSS AGATE+GREEN Amethyst 925 STERLING SILVER PENDANT 25
$4.99
Time Remaining: 47m

Multi Color Moss Agate Pendant bead BS004046
Multi Color Moss Agate Pendant bead BS004046
$2.99
Time Remaining: 50m

NEW DESIGN BEAUTIFUL MOSS AGATE GEMSTON PENDANT 925 SILVER OVERLAY
NEW DESIGN BEAUTIFUL MOSS AGATE GEMSTON PENDANT 925 SILVER OVERLAY
$5.99
Time Remaining: 54m
Buy It Now for only: $5.99

Moss AGATE aqeeq akik and sterling PRAYER BEADS MASBAHA TASBIH 33
Moss AGATE aqeeq akik and sterling PRAYER BEADS MASBAHA TASBIH 33
$31.99
Time Remaining: 54m
Buy It Now for only: $31.99

53x36x7mm green moss agate teardrop pendant bead B47825
53x36x7mm green moss agate teardrop pendant bead B47825
$0.82 (4 Bids)
Time Remaining: 55m

2611CT 100 Natural Moss Agate Facet Rough Specimen YAD783
2611CT 100 Natural Moss Agate Facet Rough Specimen YAD783
$1.99
Time Remaining: 56m

Moss AGATE aqeeq akik PRAYER BEADS MASBAHA TASBIH 33
Moss AGATE aqeeq akik PRAYER BEADS MASBAHA TASBIH 33
$27.99
Time Remaining: 57m
Buy It Now for only: $27.99

3470Cts 100 NATURAL DESIGNER GREEN MOSS AGATE OVAL CABOCHON AFRICAN GEMSTONE
3470Cts 100 NATURAL DESIGNER GREEN MOSS AGATE OVAL CABOCHON AFRICAN GEMSTONE
$4.99
Time Remaining: 58m



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Interesting Video About Moss Agate

Jay King Moss Agate Sterling Silver Shield-Shaped Button...

Moss Agate

Tips agate beads for jewelry making

agate "> Agate beads are natural stone beads swirled with colors, as one of the pearls of the oldest jewelry history that had been used in jewelry. that come in many different forms ranging from transparent to opaque in a wide range of colors, including blue, green, the crazy lace, Indians, mosses, and many other varieties.

From agate beads are semi precious stones and relatively flights, which are most suitable for stringing together to make almost any type of jewelry, a necklace, bracelets, any other jewelry. Agate style has a dawn does classical aesthetically valuable for any art and craft.

It is believed or not, is said to agate beads containing a force Magic and durability, which could work as a talisman or amulet for carrier release anger and frustration. Sounds pretty interesting, is not it? Well, they are more and more people wear ornaments made ​​of agate for protection, because it was thought that these accounts is an emotional healing powerful.

The agate beads are beautiful, affordable and irresistible, integrating them into your life is going to unlock the artist in you inside, because there are a multitude of possibilities when working with them. However, beading is a great hobby to pick-up that is easily mastered still a constant challenge.

Above all, before making the jewelry, you have to buy the preferred agate beads first. A good place to start is an online merchant who enjoys a good reputation and credit, so, look no further, in order to be able to find many colors Agate accounts in all patterns at a cost of low-cost PandaHall.

Speaking about the design of agate handmade pearl jewelry, patterns are divided into simple and complex, giving each the opportunity to craft something unique, such as a necklace or bracelet again can be done with several different package designs. Well, the patterns are limited only by imagination and jewelry pieces that enrich the attitude of the designer and the perception of the world.

You may also be interested in Geodes.  These have agate and quartz crystals inside.

The last but not least, agate is believed to help those looking for friendship and love, and there are times you can see the fingerprints at agate beads. These can be cleaned easily with a little glass cleaner and a paper towel, as gently clean and be careful not to scratch it.

Well, have you ever tried to find a very specific color, finish, size and as balls of agate? Then you will see PandaHall a brilliant selection of beads and components. Enjoy your time!

About the Author

China beads wholesale supplier-Wholesale wide ranges of beads and jewelry findings for jewelry making. In addition jewelry tools and stringing material are available too.

I get a ring or necklace with moss agate?

I was wondering if I get more leads as a necklace or ring.

is for personal use, worn like a necklace around his heart. If it is affecting others, as a ring, preferably raw or lightly polished stone and not cut too. (That's a golden rule for any stone drugs.)

Find your Moss Agate on Amazon Stores







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Crystal Allies Materials: 1/2lb Bulk Tumbled Green Moss Agate Quartz Stones from South Africa - Large 1 Polished Natural Crystals for Reiki Crystal Healing *Wholesale Lot*


Crystal Allies Materials: 1/2lb Bulk Tumbled Green Moss Agate Quartz Stones from South Africa - Large 1 Polished Natural Crystals for Reiki Crystal Healing *Wholesale Lot*


$9.99


Agate is found in a variety of colors. While Agate is generally considered a stone of relatively low intensity and slower in vibrational frequencies, this is by no means a suggestion that Agate is inferior to other stones. In fact, Agate is regarded as stabilizing and is suitable for long-term development. Agate imbues the holder with extra energy when needed. However, because it is a stabilizing ...






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Zentron Crystal Collection: Green Moss Agate 60MM All Natural Gemstone Crystal Massage Wand and Velvet Pouch


Zentron Crystal Collection: Green Moss Agate 60MM All Natural Gemstone Crystal Massage Wand and Velvet Pouch


$7.95


Green Moss is a form of agate that is named after the green and white pattern that remind many of moss. It is associated with the (4th) heart chakra. Each Zentron branded massage wand is polished from all natural crystal and comes with a velvet carrying pouch and a Zentron rock information sheet. Each stone will have a slightly different appearance due to the uniqueness of the rock from which it i...

Birthday And Yuletide Presents For Gemini

Gemini is associated with sociable pursuits, modern fads, and gadgets. Gemini hobbies usually involve interaction web-sites, handcrafts, get yourself a computers, or learning anything new.

Gemini Hobbies

Pastimes associated with the sign of Gemini include:

  • Board and card games
  • Building or fixing things
  • Computer programming
  • Concerts
  • Driving
  • Flirting
  • Flying planes
  • Handcrafts
  • Internet surfing
  • Learning new things
  • Listening to or making music
  • Parties
  • Playing with gadgets and electronic toys
  • Reading (Geminis often have many different books on the go directly)
  • Socializing
  • Taking things apart and putting them back together
  • Talking on the phone or by e-mail
  • Video games
  • Visiting people
  • Watching television or movies
  • web banner designs
  • Writing

Gemini Gifts

Based on Gemini-associated hobbies, gifts for Gemini include:

  • Board games
  • Books and magazines/audiobooks
  • Bracelets or rings
  • Cable packages
  • Cell phones/phone accessories and packages
  • Computers/computer supplies and accessories
  • Concert tickets
  • Craft supplies
  • DVDs
  • Electronic equipment and gadgets
  • Fashionable modern (in lieu of classic) clothing and accessories
  • Flying lessons
  • Gift certificates for classes (learning a brand new language, a craft skill, or anything else of concern but preferably short duration)
  • High-speed Internet packages
  • Music/musical instruments
  • Playing cards
  • Television sets
  • Tickets to different social events
  • Video games

Gemini Colours, Patterns, and Designs

Gemini is associated with bold colours comparable to electric blue, bright green, and yellow, and also all geometric patterns. Gemini is ruled by Mercury, the planet of communication and quick change, meaning that Gemini preferences may change from each day, though this sign could continue cheerful colours prevent yourself from the gloomier ones.

Geminis are normally drawn to complicated geometric patterns that take thought to interpret and contain many different elements. Patterns offering lines and angles are frequently preferred to those with curves or natural elements.

Gemini Gemstones

Gemstones linked to Gemini include those invoved with Gemini colours, such as agate, adventurine, and Turquoise stone, as well as those linked to certain months, similar to emerald (May), pearl (June), and alexandrite (June).

Gemini Trees, Plants, Flowers, and Foods

If purchasing plants, seeds, or food, they are sure trees, herbs, and edibles linked to Gemini. Gemini trees add some hawthorn (May 13-June 9), the oak (June 10-July 7), and all nut-bearing trees.

Flowers, herbs, and foods connected with Gemini and ruling planet mercury include parsley, lavender, dill, lily of the valley, pomegranate, licorice, cress, tansy, vervain, caraway, dill, fennel, and marjoram. Moss is likewise involved sign of Gemini.

The Atypical Gemini

Not all Geminis will comply with the common Gemini profile. A Gemini whose rising sign carries in Capricorn, including, will be quite different from one who has Leo rising. A Gemini with Capricorn rising will almost certainly be a bit more conventional and less fascinated by modern fads, whereas with Leo rising, a Gemini will be even more extroverted and frequently drawn to arts and crafts.

Further Reading

For more info on Gemini, see Gemini Personality Profile, Astrology Careers (Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius), and Marriage and Divorce for Gemini.

We hope you identified the Moss Agate you have been looking for today. We show a large range of gemstones such as Moss Agate on our site. Everyday we scour the internet to locate the best deals for Moss Agate and other gems using our web portals. If for any reason you can"t find what you were searching for today, check out our other pages and categories on the right hand side or use the search box. Thank you for visiting gemstone store.


Agate Rough

Great deals on Agate rough and other uncut stones. See our specially selected offers below to find the best buys for your Agate rough online today.


Q333 Utah Red Horn Coral rough cab slab trim saw display specimen CHEAP agate
Q333 Utah Red Horn Coral rough cab slab trim saw display specimen CHEAP agate
$25.99
Time Remaining: 31m

Tabasco Geode 1 Pair Cut and Polished Great for Jewelry 25519
Tabasco Geode 1 Pair Cut and Polished Great for Jewelry 25519
$12.95
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $12.95

Brown and Gold Agate Lapidary Rough 1 lb 2 oz   896
Brown and Gold Agate Lapidary Rough 1 lb 2 oz 896
$4.99
Time Remaining: 32m
Buy It Now for only: $4.99

Red Agate Lapidary Rough 1 lb 14 oz   894
Red Agate Lapidary Rough 1 lb 14 oz 894
$5.99
Time Remaining: 32m
Buy It Now for only: $5.99

Gold Moss Agate Lapidary Rough 2 lb 13 oz   893
Gold Moss Agate Lapidary Rough 2 lb 13 oz 893
$9.99
Time Remaining: 32m
Buy It Now for only: $9.99

Red Agate Lapidary Rough 15 oz   889
Red Agate Lapidary Rough 15 oz 889
$4.99
Time Remaining: 32m
Buy It Now for only: $4.99

3513CT 100 Natural Namibian Red Fire Agate Facet Rough Specimen YFA4817
3513CT 100 Natural Namibian Red Fire Agate Facet Rough Specimen YFA4817
$1.99
Time Remaining: 34m

24845CT Mystic Coating Druzy Agate Geode Crystal Facet Rough Specimen YEG3236
24845CT Mystic Coating Druzy Agate Geode Crystal Facet Rough Specimen YEG3236
$1.99
Time Remaining: 34m

65 Cts Natural Dyed Nice Pink Druzy Geode Agate Slice Lot Rough Specimen AJ267
65 Cts Natural Dyed Nice Pink Druzy Geode Agate Slice Lot Rough Specimen AJ267
$6.00
Time Remaining: 35m
Buy It Now for only: $6.00

14060Cts100NATURAL GREEN MOSS AGATE SLAB ROUGH FANCY CABOCHON TOP GEMSTONES
14060Cts100NATURAL GREEN MOSS AGATE SLAB ROUGH FANCY CABOCHON TOP GEMSTONES
$5.99
Time Remaining: 36m
Buy It Now for only: $5.99

65 Cts100Natural Free From Solar Agate Slice Lot Rough Minerals Specimen HA545
65 Cts100Natural Free From Solar Agate Slice Lot Rough Minerals Specimen HA545
$6.00
Time Remaining: 37m
Buy It Now for only: $6.00

20255CT 100 Natural Unheated Yellow Corundum Facet Rough Specimen YHB465
20255CT 100 Natural Unheated Yellow Corundum Facet Rough Specimen YHB465
$1.99
Time Remaining: 38m

509CT 100 Natural Namibian Red Fire Agate Facet Rough Specimen YFA4828
509CT 100 Natural Namibian Red Fire Agate Facet Rough Specimen YFA4828
$1.99 (1 Bid)
Time Remaining: 39m

8151CT 100 Natural African Polished Snow Pattern Agate Rough Speci YMF1057
8151CT 100 Natural African Polished Snow Pattern Agate Rough Speci YMF1057
$1.99 (1 Bid)
Time Remaining: 40m

DINO7 CALANDRIA Agates 1 lb 17oz Fantastic Lapidary Rough
DINO7 CALANDRIA Agates 1 lb 17oz Fantastic Lapidary Rough
$9.99
Time Remaining: 42m

70 Cts Natural Dyed Green Druzy Geode Agate Slice Lot Rough Specimen AJ405
70 Cts Natural Dyed Green Druzy Geode Agate Slice Lot Rough Specimen AJ405
$6.18
Time Remaining: 42m
Buy It Now for only: $6.18

341CT 100Natural Mexican Multicolored Fire Agate Facet Rough Specimen YFM250
341CT 100Natural Mexican Multicolored Fire Agate Facet Rough Specimen YFM250
$12.50 (10 Bids)
Time Remaining: 43m

70 Cts Natural Dyed Pink Druzy Geode Agate Slice Lot Rough Specimen AJ378
70 Cts Natural Dyed Pink Druzy Geode Agate Slice Lot Rough Specimen AJ378
$6.18
Time Remaining: 43m
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70 Cts100Natural Free From Solar Agate Slice Lot Rough Minerals Specimen HA549
70 Cts100Natural Free From Solar Agate Slice Lot Rough Minerals Specimen HA549
$6.18
Time Remaining: 45m
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Tabasco Geode 1 Pair Cut and Polished Great for Jewelry 31504
Tabasco Geode 1 Pair Cut and Polished Great for Jewelry 31504
$12.95
Time Remaining: 46m
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Natural Rough Uncut Agates Lot of 100+ Small Medium Pacific Ocean Stone lot 4
Natural Rough Uncut Agates Lot of 100+ Small Medium Pacific Ocean Stone lot 4
$9.99 (1 Bid)
Time Remaining: 48m

Lot 3 Natural Rough Agates Lot of 100+ Small Medium Sized Pacific Ocean Stone
Lot 3 Natural Rough Agates Lot of 100+ Small Medium Sized Pacific Ocean Stone
$9.99 (1 Bid)
Time Remaining: 48m

Lot 7 Natural Rough Agates Lot of 100+ Small to Medium Sized Pacific Ocean Stone
Lot 7 Natural Rough Agates Lot of 100+ Small to Medium Sized Pacific Ocean Stone
$9.99 (1 Bid)
Time Remaining: 48m

Lot 6 Natural Rough Uncut Agates Lot of 100+ Small Medium Pacific Ocean Stone
Lot 6 Natural Rough Uncut Agates Lot of 100+ Small Medium Pacific Ocean Stone
$9.99 (1 Bid)
Time Remaining: 48m



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Interesting Video About Agate rough


ROUGH AGATE FROM URUGUAY

Agate rough

Glass ionomer Cements

INTRODUCTION

The GIC have been evolved as a hybrid from silicate cement as a powder and polyacrylate as a liquid.

You can also find good quality agate rough on Amazon StoresUS stores - see our specially slected lsiting for rough agates


SUNYIK Natural Raw Stones Rough Rock Crystals for Tumbling,Cabbing,Pink Striped Agate,1pound(about 460 gram)


SUNYIK Natural Raw Stones Rough Rock Crystals for Tumbling,Cabbing,Pink Striped Agate,1pound(about 460 gram)


$16.99


1 pound of natural rough loose stone.Stones are natural and vary in size and shape.Photos are representing items from lots. Colors and shapes can vary from lot to lot. Excellent energy stone, positivity stone,healing crystals,great for making cabochons, tumbling, or whatever other clever purpose you may have....

Fundamental Rockhound Products: Rough Carnelian Agate Natural Bulk Rock for Tumbling Metaphysical Gemstones Healing Crystals Wholesale Lot ... from Madagascar (2 lb)


Fundamental Rockhound Products: Rough Carnelian Agate Natural Bulk Rock for Tumbling Metaphysical Gemstones Healing Crystals Wholesale Lot ... from Madagascar (2 lb)


$14.95


..... ..... Metaphysically, Carnelian Agate is believed to calm tempers by establishing self-control, relieve sexual tension and excite sexual energy. In addition, it energizes the blood, protects against illness, and is of benefit to tissue regeneration, inflammations, and infections. A stone of ambition and drive, Carnelian is a Power Stone! An excellent career stone, it is very helpful in makin...

Crystal Allies Materials: 1lb Bulk Rough Agate Stones from Brazil - Large 1 Raw Natural Crystals for Cabbing, Cutting, Lapidary, Tumbling, and Polishing & Reiki Crystal Healing *Wholesale Lot*


Crystal Allies Materials: 1lb Bulk Rough Agate Stones from Brazil - Large 1 Raw Natural Crystals for Cabbing, Cutting, Lapidary, Tumbling, and Polishing & Reiki Crystal Healing *Wholesale Lot*


$9.99


Agate is found in a variety of colors. While Agate is generally considered a stone of relatively low intensity and slower in vibrational frequencies, this is by no means a suggestion that Agate is inferior to other stones. In fact, Agate is regarded as stabilizing and is suitable for long-term development. Agate imbues the holder with extra energy when needed. However, because it is a stabilizing ...

Luxlady Premium Apple iPhone 7 Aluminum Backplate Bumper Snap Case iPhone7 IMAGE ID 7219632 fossil turritella agate rough slab


Luxlady Premium Apple iPhone 7 Aluminum Backplate Bumper Snap Case iPhone7 IMAGE ID 7219632 fossil turritella agate rough slab


$9.98


This Aluminum Backplate Bumper Snap Case is only designed for iPhone 7. This case uses premium aluminum back plate along with a durable plastic hard shell for instant protection. Perfect cutouts maximize the functionality of your phone. Water resistance aluminum surface is extremly easy to clean without any discoloration. Please note that the color of product may appear slightly different on indiv...

Rough Agate Marble Stone Print Apple iPhone 7 Plastic Phone Protective Case Cover


Rough Agate Marble Stone Print Apple iPhone 7 Plastic Phone Protective Case Cover


$5.99


Newly opened market GISMI is ready to sell and assist you in choosing design for mobile phone case. We are selling all kind of phone case designs, from animals to marble. Phone cases are made of hard plastic material , which has matte surface and is really scratch resistant. Case easilly snaps on your device, providing secure fit. Top and bottom are open, for easy reach of ports and buttons....






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Stay Fashionable And Protected With Dzi Beads

Dzi beads are traditional spiritual elements that originated from Tibetan and Chinese culture. They are known to guard the people who wear it from any danger.

Up to this modern era, no one knows exactly when it was first created and how it got introduced to the society is known to be an age-old mystery.

Dzi beads are basically just a couple of simple colorful beads. But some boast of elegant designs all over them. There are the basic ones are that are more low-profile than the others.

The representation of the beads vary depending on the shape, design and color.

One of the best loved kinds of the Dzi beads is generally identified as the sheep’s eyes. It is one of the most prized beads around and because it is rare and it is difficult to find. The Sheep’s eyes Dzi beads doesn’t possess a regular shape, it is a bit edgy and usually resembles the shape of the moon or an eye.

It is said that the sheep’s eyes can protect its bearer from people who have the evil eyes.

People who know little about the Chinese tradition may become estranged to the mystical symbols in the Authentic Dzi beads. Dzi beads can also be decorated with lines, shapes, figures like eyes and many more.

Today, Dzi bead makers are now utilizing a vast range of modern designs that suits the taste of many people. Either way, both can be used as defensive charms or worn for fashion and style.

Although the Dzi bead is very popular for protective reasons, they are now introduced in the world of style and glamour.

Feng shui masters and practitioners have dzi beads that go well with their feng shui element affinity for protection. They are typically used by hunters and warriors to ensure their safety wherever they may go.

According to the Ancient Tibetan tradition, the concept of using jewelry and beads to combat evil and defend people from evil elements, bad spirits and demons has been used ever since the birth of civilization. The colors of the Dzi beads contain symbolic meanings. This is very important in feng shui concepts because the colors represent a certain element used in the feng shui principles.

Modern people use the Dzi beads in various accessories, but originally, they are added in necklaces or hair ornaments for the women.
 
Aside from being protective accessories, the Dzi beads were also used in ancient Tibet for socio-political purposes. The type of Dzi bead that you wear implies what your rank in the society is. Each symbol and the material of Dzi beads characterize different positions in the society. The type of dzi bead one is allowed to wear depends on his or her standing in the community.

People consider the dzi beads as a part of the engraved beads family. The Dzi bead‘s design specifications varies from region to region. But in spite of these differences, the Dzi beads are all made from either agate or chalcedonies that are engraved with different shapes, patterns, mystical symbols and inscriptions that grants protection.

We hope you found the Agate rough you were searching or today. We show a large range of gemstones such as Agate rough and other rough gemstones. Everyday we search the internet to locate the best deals for Agate rough and other gems using our special web portals. If you can"t find the stones you were searching for today, check out our other llinks on the right hand side or use the search box. Thank you for visiting gemstone store.


Tumble Polished

Great buys for Tumble Polished Stones

Special selections for Tumble Polished online today. Wide range of rough and cut gemstones such as Tumble Polished. Buy from the best sellers on the web/h2>


Small Tumble Rough over 1100 carat 1 2 pound For Tumbler Or Polishing
Small Tumble Rough over 1100 carat 1 2 pound For Tumbler Or Polishing
$3.99
Time Remaining: 32m
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17 A+ BEAUTIFUL TUMBLED POLISHED HYPERSTHENE STONE FROM CANADA 18grams 12
17 A+ BEAUTIFUL TUMBLED POLISHED HYPERSTHENE STONE FROM CANADA 18grams 12
$6.50 (5 Bids)
Time Remaining: 37m

14 TUMBLED POLISHED LAGUNA LACE AGATE STONE MINERAL FROM MEXICO 13grams 30
14 TUMBLED POLISHED LAGUNA LACE AGATE STONE MINERAL FROM MEXICO 13grams 30
$4.02 (2 Bids)
Time Remaining: 46m

Case Tumbler Brass Cleaning Kit Separator Tumbling Ammo Cleaner Polish Reloading
Case Tumbler Brass Cleaning Kit Separator Tumbling Ammo Cleaner Polish Reloading
$85.52
Time Remaining: 1h 46m
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11 lb Tumbled Polished Gem Stones Approx 5 8 7 8 Over 900 pcs per lb Wholesale
11 lb Tumbled Polished Gem Stones Approx 5 8 7 8 Over 900 pcs per lb Wholesale
$89.00
Time Remaining: 2h 4m
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44 grams Ruby Tumbled Polished Crystal Fluorescent Chakra Healing Crystal
44 grams Ruby Tumbled Polished Crystal Fluorescent Chakra Healing Crystal
$5.99
Time Remaining: 2h 29m

1320 CTS 100 NATURAL AQUAMARINE TUMBLE POLISHED ROUGH SPECIMEN GEMSTONE
1320 CTS 100 NATURAL Aquamarine TUMBLE POLISHED ROUGH SPECIMEN GEMSTONE
$4.99
Time Remaining: 3h 12m

725 CTS 100 NATURAL AQUAMARINE TUMBLE POLISHED SPECIMEN UNTREATED GEMSTONES
725 CTS 100 NATURAL AQUAMARINE TUMBLE POLISHED SPECIMEN UNTREATED GEMSTONES
$4.99
Time Remaining: 3h 12m

3400 gram very awesome self standing polished green color Nephrite tumble  pak
3400 gram very awesome self standing polished green color Nephrite tumble pak
$129.00
Time Remaining: 4h 26m
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7705 Ct Natural Brazilian Geode Agate Polished Beautiful Tumble Gem Stone
7705 Ct Natural Brazilian Geode Agate Polished Beautiful Tumble Gem Stone
$0.99 (1 Bid)
Time Remaining: 4h 57m

1 2lb Beautiful Tumbled Color Cats eye Rough Rock Polished Stones Bulk Healing
1 2lb Beautiful Tumbled Color Cats eye Rough Rock Polished Stones Bulk Healing
$12.99
Time Remaining: 5h 7m
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1x Round Black Obsidian Crystal Tumbled Bead Stone Polishing Jewelry Finding 2cm
1x Round Black Obsidian Crystal Tumbled Bead Stone Polishing Jewelry Finding 2cm
$0.40
Time Remaining: 5h 23m

New 6pcs Polished Crystal Tumbled Stone DIY Design For Decoration
New 6pcs Polished Crystal Tumbled Stone DIY Design For Decoration
$7.47
Time Remaining: 6h 14m
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Namibian Red Blue Gold Pietersite polished tumble 11 small pieces rough
Namibian Red Blue Gold Pietersite polished tumble 11 small pieces rough
$110.00
Time Remaining: 6h 24m
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Medium Polished Tumbled Jet Stone of Protection Metaphysical Healing
Medium Polished Tumbled Jet Stone of Protection Metaphysical Healing
$7.00
Time Remaining: 6h 24m
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100 cts MIXED TUMBLE POLISHED SWEETWATER AGATE WYOMING  16
100 cts MIXED TUMBLE POLISHED SWEETWATER AGATE WYOMING 16
$1.95
Time Remaining: 7h 51m
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100 cts MIXED TUMBLE POLISHED SWEETWATER AGATE WYOMING  18
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Interesting Video About Tumble Polishing and gemstones

Wire Wraps by Blarneystone


Tumble Polished

Feel the Bliss At Home Using Travertine Tiles

Travertine tiles are like the cousins of limestone tiles. They both are composite materials made from calcium carbonate. Another in their family is marble that has additional heat and pressure applied to it by the earth’s crust. But travertine is formed by minerals dissolved in ground water, which subsequently gets deposited on the earth’s surface by rivers, natural springs, or geysers.

You can find travertine tiles in a variety of colors like ivory, to beige, to reddish brown, and even gold. It actually depends on the iron content in the material. It also comes in different finishes such as polished, matte, brushed, or tumbled. Polished travertine resembles marble, and brushed or tumbled Travertine has a more antiqued look. In a very less time it has become the favourite of owners and since they are very easy to cut and shape than many other stones, this makes it all the more liked by people who are looking for some class material and a hit among the home builders too.

Irrespective of any tile that you are using at your place, the motive is always to give an impression of a delightful welcome and that the guests like it instantly. Be it the living area, your bedroom or the kitchen, you can use travertine tiles anywhere. They are sleek, clean and beautiful, and the difference in appearance is note worthy. These tiles don't just look cleaner due to their density and hardness, the travertine materials (tiles) are more impervious to dirt, and are much easier to clean. On the maintenance front, you just need a damp mop to clean travertine tile after sweeping the dirt away (or use a sponge if your tile is on the wall). In some places, just to take extra caution (so that they don't wither out fast) you can also use commercial tile cleaner, but a simple solution of one cup white distilled vinegar in one gallon of hot water and a teaspoon of dish soap works can make it absolutely sparkling. Spots may require a little more scrubbing, especially on the grout lines. For these lines what you can do is seal them! You can find grout sealant in the market in a spray can, which makes it easy to apply. Grout sealant will protect your grout from water damage also from stain getting collected at the lines. Dirt can make these beautiful tiles look really bad. It better that you take care of them once in a while.

After selecting Travertine tile, the further process will require to give it a more clean and trendy look like polishing, filing and brushing. Travertine tiles are polished so that they give a shiny look, the travertine is sanded and properly polished. The next process is filing which is actually filing up of the pores which are visible in the travertine tile after attaching it to the surface are filled with colored resin, or cement to produce a pristine, solid surface. And the last step is that of brushing which is done with the help of a wire brush after the whole process is complete of fixing, polishing and filling the visible gap in travertine tiles, to give the surface of the travertine tile a worn, textured surface.

For the purpose of installing travertine tiles, what you can do is hire a professional. They are sophisticated things so they need to be handled with care. These tiles are expensive so you wouldn't want any disaster while laying them. Considered one of the strongest flooring options today, travertine looks very decorative and comes in variety of glazes and finishes, ranging from matte to high gloss looks. It looks really precious and you are going to love it.

About the Author

About the Author:-
Santa Closen is a renowned writer in the field of tile installations. He has the expertise in the installation, grouting and maintenance technique for the natural stone tiles. His expert guidance would solve your queries related to Travertine tiles, granite tiles, ceramic tiles, marble tiles etc. You can go through his informative content and get easy solutions for your household projects.

what gem stones can be tumble polished together?

i have a few handfulls of rubies emeralds garnets and sapphires and am wondering if they can be tumble polished

These precious gems would not normally be tumble polished at all, much less together. They would be carefully shaped for maximum reflection. Rubies and emeralds are normally facetted like a diamond. Sapphires are ground round and oval, especially (only?) star sapphires. If you really have a couple of handfuls and this is not a tongue in cheek the stones should have a value in at least the tens of thousands if not hundreds of thousands of dollars in value.

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6 pcs Lapis Lazuli Crystal Tumbled Stone Lot, 100% Natural Gemstones in Gift Pouch / Polished Tumble Rocks for Energy Crystal Healing Grids


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People Crystals® Lapis Lazuli Crystal Tumbled Stone Set Crystals Healing tumbled stones are excellent for crystal grids, wire wrapping, jewelry making, crafts and more.     Specifications: - Size: Approx. 15-20mm each - 100% Natural polished Lapis Lazuli stone mined from Mother Earth. - Each piece is unique in terms of color and pattern - Lot Includes 6 pieces in People Crystals Branded P...

Crystal Allies Materials: 1/2lb Bulk Tumbled Grey Botswana Agate Quartz Stones from South Africa - Large 1 Polished Natural Crystals for Reiki Crystal HealingWholesale Lot


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Agate is found in a variety of colors. While Agate is generally considered a stone of relatively low intensity and slower in vibrational frequencies, this is by no means a suggestion that Agate is inferior to other stones. In fact, Agate is regarded as stabilizing and is suitable for long-term development. Agate imbues the holder with extra energy when needed. However, because it is a stabilizing ...

Hypnotic Gems Materials: 2 lbs Medium Brazilian Tumbled Polished Natural Stones Assorted Mix - Gemstone Supplies for Wicca, Reiki, and Energy Crystal HealingWholesale Lot


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The Hypnotic Gems® brand of natural Brazilian tumbled stones uses only the finest quality high energy rough from specific mines. They are tumbled using a specialized proprietary technique in our own tumbling factory. This technique increases the stones energy and gives the stones from Hypnotic Gems® their beauty!Some types of stones you may receive in this mix include: Amethyst, Citrine, Emerald...

Fluorite Tumble Stones (20-25mm) - Single Stone


Fluorite Tumble Stones (20-25mm) - Single Stone


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Considered a very powerful healing stone as well as a lovely decorative piece, this Fluorite Tumble Stone is said to bring order to chaos. Tumblestones bring to you the beauty of rocks, minerals and gemstones , which are usually difficult to appreciate in their natural state. Tumbling, a long process of smoothing and polishing, reveals the wonderful colour and form of these natural treasures that ...

1/4 Lb Tiger Eye Gold Xs Mini Tumbled Gem Stones Small Size 2 Polished Mineral Gemstones for Jewelry, Crafts, Crystal Healing, Wicca and Reiki. Lot Is About 114 Grams


1/4 Lb Tiger Eye Gold Xs Mini Tumbled Gem Stones Small Size 2 Polished Mineral Gemstones for Jewelry, Crafts, Crystal Healing, Wicca and Reiki. Lot Is About 114 Grams


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These Are Very Small, Size 2 Mini Sized Tumbled Stones. You'll receive the same amount as shown in the image.

~ Properties of Tiger Eye Gold. A symbol of inner strength. It produces soothing vibrations and allows you to be uninhibited. It has been used to stimulate wealth and the stability required to maintain wealth. Encourages optimism. Enhances creativity. Aids concentration. Anchors subtle
c...


Crystal Allies Materials: 1/2lb Bulk Tumbled Red Jasper Stones from South Africa - Large 1 Polished Natural Crystals for Reiki Crystal Healing *Wholesale Lot*


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Jasper is considered a variety of Quartz! Jasper is known as the "supreme nurturer." It sustains and supports through times of stress, and brings tranquility and wholeness. With its stabilizing energies, Jasper is an extremely protective and grounding stone. It absorbs negative energies and cleanses, aligns, and balances the chakras and the aura. It clears environmental and electromagnetic pol...

An Indespensable Outdoor Dance Floor Rent Brought To You By Party Hire In Melbourne

No matter how basic or luxurious the party could be, dancing will always be present at the scene. Dancing is regarded as an act of merriment and celebration and signifies that people are definitely having fun and having a good time at the affair. However, it can often be difficult especially if the surface in which the dancing area is located is not suitable. I'm talking about the sloping ground, abrasive concrete as well as muddy area. It is best to rent an outdoor party dance floor in which you can have for your own. In this way, dancing can be very a lot enjoyed and even moves the crowd to party more.

 

There are many obtainable outdoor dance floors for rent you can select from. All of which varies according to your preference and specifications. You can have wood floors to give the event a touch of style and class if you're eyeing on a more formal and polished atmosphere. Its hard and sturdy material can tolerate any amount of force and it is also suitable for indoor use. Wooden floors have always been popular all over Melbourne because it does not simply deliver entertainment but it also boosts the entire appearance of the event and brings out a lot of fun and thrill. Its exceptional feature is that the material is waterproof and non-slippery so despite how many drinks would get spilled on the floor, it ensures that no one will fall off their feet while dancing to the beat.

 

And if you're aiming for a more laid back and simple yet classy look, Vinyl flooring can be perfect for a choice. It is available in a number of colors and layouts, so it's a no surprise that it's also one of the wanted piece and a must -have for any happening inMelbourne. It is best suited for any kind of theme with its easy to fit factors and colourful appearance. These will definitely give each at the event a one a extraordinary atmosphere.

 

Another complex outdoor dance floors in Melbourne obtainable for rent is the fashionable and modern dance floor with LED lights crafted within the flooring. The lights can go in a synchronized action or appear in unison with different colors and patterns It can either be maintained as the music plays or set on a turn and off program so it can come out flashing and even add more festivity to the bash. Imagine getting this at the function and the only thing that you need now is a disco ball to absolutely complement the flooring.

 

Hence look for a party hire in Melbournethat can give you these brilliant capabilities and can present you with everything you need for the gathering. Setting up a dance area where you can place a dance floor for the guests to utilize can be very easy once you have the suitable dance floor rent elements. Make sure that every one of the devices are nicely maintained and can offer the best of its services and functionality. With all of these present at the function, you are sure that nothing will go wrong and the event will run without problems and properly as projected.

 

If you're searching for Outdoor Dance Floor Rent in Melbourne, you might visit http://www.ozpartyhire.com.au today!

Have you found the Tumble Polished you were searching for today on our site?. We show a wide range of rough and cut gemstones such as Tumble Polished so we hope you have found what you are looking for. Everyday we search the web to find the best deals for Tumble Polished and other gemstones using our special internet portals. If you can not find the gems you were searching for today, check out the other links on the right hand side or use the search box. Norman


Lapis Lazuli

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« Previous1234

Interesting Video About Lapis Lazuli


Minecraft - Dyes! Lapis Lazuli Stone! (1.2 Beta Update Part 2)

Lapis Lazuli

With love from Crystal Crystal IV --- Select Your Special luck

Having seen several pieces of beautiful crystal jewelry, are not made mouth water? No anxiety, glass suitable for different person is different, so you need to pay more attention to select a crystal suitable for you. In Hong Kong, many stars also love crystal jewelry much, who have put in a great variety of crystals in one and wearing it according to their characters or constellation. If you also believe that it is possible to take a look at this table and find the special lucky crystal just belongs to you.

* Aries (March 21-April 19)

Lucky Stone:

Red Hair Crystal: Red hair crystal could enhance beliefs personal self-confidence and determination, and is also a symbol according to a rise of powerful, so it is appropriate talisman for those who relative seemed timid, weak and lack self-confidence.

Purple-Yellow Crystal: This type of glass not only can bring more opportunities to make money, but also acted as a guarantee for their property, also could have used more luck to you, and improve empolder human relationships and wisdom too, in other words, is to have dual virtues of the Amethyst and Citrine glass.

* Taurus (April 20-May 20)

Lucky Stone:
Spirit Quartz / Crystal Garden: Crystal Garden is in the name of wealth, suggesting widespread sense of wealth in the other, making it the best lucky stone for the pursuit of wealth.

Eye of the Tiger: Tiger-eye could raise their confidence, courage and ability to perform tasks, and gold tiger's eye, is also a symbol of money, which could help bring money or windfall.

* The Crab (June 22 to 22 July)

Lucky Stone:

White Crystal: One of the "Severn Treasures" in the Buddhism, white glass has powerful positive energy and effectiveness of the deity of power protection for people with chi-training, worship Buddha, avoiding bad luck, protection and divination home, that everything has a more powerful efficacy in clearing negative energies around you.

Red Agate: Agate is considered as the "third eye" in gems, is a symbol of mutual love, and represents hope too.

* Leo (July 23 to 22 August)

Lucky Stone:

Hair Crystal / Quartz Rutilated: crystal hair with a high frequency of vibration, which have a considerable effectiveness in improving the self-belief and confidence, it is still useful for you to build a more precise sense.

Olivine: Olivine is known as "La Esmeralda in Dusk" is the stone of those born in August, meaning "A happy marriage."

* Virgo (August 23 to September 22)

Lucky Stone:

Crystal Green hair:

hair green glass is a kind of actinolite, as its name suggests it is helpful for men's sexual ability, may also benefit from more money for you, and it is very rare in nature.

Blue Agate: For those who are often out, blue agate is a good amulet and presented as a special href = "http://www.123giftfactory.com"> gift for their families or friends is outdoors.

* Libra (September 23 to October 22)

Lucky Stone:

Hair Gold Glass: golden hair is the true king of glass on the facts. Regarding the promotion of their own fortune of wealth, crystal hair Gold dominates the economic fate and controls too much unexpected, which is the most powerful crystal glass family, and endowed with super energy for recruitment of honor, dignity, power and wealth.

Green Agate: One of the "Severn Treasures" in Buddhism, green agate was regarded as a talisman and amulet for good since ancient times, it is useful to you in eliminating pressures and fatigue.

* Scorpio (October 23 to November 22)

Lucky Stone:

Titanium Crystal: A glass of golden hair, titanium crystal could help the race, is also useful for their economic and brings unexpected money, titanium glass also can improve their lot and give you opportunities to meet her savior, but also is effective in avoiding bad luck and learn lots.

* Sagittarius (November 23 to 22 December)

Lucky Stone:

Amethyst: Crystal Amethyst also known as "Feng Shui Stone", Japanese called Amethyst Crystal as "stone of power." "Social-Built" "Protection Stone of Love" are also his alias.

* Capricorn (Dec. 23-19 January)

Lucky Stone:

Smoked Glass: smoking is a good amulet and talisman and suitable for take with you. That takes you on the left hand is useful for filtering the air kick in his body.

Black Agate, Black Agate known as the stone for longevity, has the power to promote conditions of welfare and prosperity. It could also bring good luck, and help to ease and enhance their value and starts. It may also reduce a bad mood of hostility, jealousy and frustration.

* Aquarius (20 January-19 February)

Lucky
Stone:

Lapis Lazuli: The color of which is the same color Pharmacist body of Buddha in Tibetan Buddhism, which takes it regularly could bring a guarantee of safety and health, and keep being separated from various diseases and disasters.

* Pisces (Feb. 20 --- March 20)

Lucky
Stone:

Pink Crystal, Pink Crystal, no doubt, is effective in improving human relationships, love or marriage, as well as increase good own charms for you.

About the Author

I'd like to introduce and display an excellent selection of China fine art products and gifts - www.123giftfactory.com to you, also give you great suggestions about gift ideas and the latest fashion art trends in China.

What is a man made ​​substitute for expensive imported blue gemstone - lapis lazuli?

is ankh, pottery, hieroglyphics, papyrus, Scarbo, cartridge, kohl, or Thebes. It was back in time to Egypt.

I suppose you could find the glass that looks like lapis lazuli. His puzzle information Additional me. The ankh is the symbol of life in ancient Egypt, the hieroglyphic writings, is a roll of papyrus made from the papyrus reed, and Thebes, the ancient capital cities today, Karnak and Luxor.

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BEADNOVA Lapis Lazuli Gemstone Necklace Crystal Healing Point Reiki Chakra Pendant Necklace Stainless Steel Chain 18''


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BEADNOVA Lapis Lazuli Gemstone Necklace Crystal Healing Point Reiki Chakra Pendant Necklace Stainless Steel Chain 18'' About BEADNOVA For more than 10 years, Beadnova is specialized in creating and designing various Beads, Gemstone, Jewelry Findings, Cords and Clasp to satisfy every customer' s need. Our focus and our reputation are built on innovation and quality. We work closely with our designe...

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How to tell apart REAL rock crystal from glass or resin made imitation "stone". 1.Appearance: every stone is unique and they look different from each other in size/shape/texture. Fake ones have standard size/shape/texture. 2. Look inside of the stone, real stone may have bubbles,clouds or cracks in it.Fake ones looks super flawless. 3. Touch & Feel. Real stone has unique details....

BEADNOVA Synthetic Lapis Lazuli Hexagonal Gemstone Necklace Crystal Snake Healing Point Chakra Pendant Necklace 18 Chain


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BEADNOVA Synthetic Lapis Lazuli Hexagonal Gemstone Necklace Crystal Snake Healing Point Chakra Pendant Necklace 18" Chain About BEADNOVA For more than 10 years, Beadnova is specialized in creating and designing various Beads, Gemstone, Jewelry Findings, Cords and Clasp to satisfy every customer' s need. Our focus and our reputation are built on innovation and quality. We work closely with our desi...

The Representation of Flowers for ones Wedding: Peonies

While your marriage ceremony day arrives, there is lots to try and do and plan. You would like the flowers to be just perfect -- full of both significance and magnificence. Each flower is stunning on its own and every flower has a figurative meaning given through many years of habit and convention. In the Victorian era, such emblems took on more meaning, as lovers sent them to and fro like a form of floral message. Here's some info regarding one large and grandiose flower, the peony.

Wedding Hairpins -About Peonies

In total bloom, peonies stand for peace. The peony is the traditional flower of China and is famous and broadly considered as being a representative of dignity, high value and admiration. The Chinese phrase for peony denotes most stunning. The peony is at times referred to as the "king of flowers" by reason of its fantastic and fulsome big round blooms. It also was famous within the imperial court. The peony means riches. Long associated with romance and love stories, peonies stand for very good luck and contented marriage. Peonies also signify compassion.

Wedding Hairpins -About Hairpins 

Decorated hairpins are a excellent way to add significance and allure to your wedding hair fashion. Hairpins normally are offered in sets, which allow you to get really creative. Hairpins had been used in the old Egyptian, Greek and Roman societies. Hairpins embellished with lapis lazuli and Turquoise were discovered in many historical burials. Double point hairpins had been discovered in 3rd century China. Early hairpins were pretty sensitive, unlike their more study modern versions. Ancient hairpins had shanks that were extremely fragile and slender. Early hairpins were made from gold and silver, with a few wooden and bone models. Metal pins, on the other hand, were popular due to their bendability. Here is some information regarding modern day embroidered hairpins.

Wedding Hairpins -Hairpin Styles for a Wedding Ceremony Ornamented with Peonies

One arresting style puts together clusters of ivory coloured pearls with dazzling marquise diamante on silver plated wire. Gorgeous and unusual, these definitely make a fashion statement. One more hairpin style features flexible loops strung with ivory Swarovski pearls and lustrous diamante accented with a little silk ribbon on silver plated wire. This hairpin has a feathery, angelical look. Having a spray style enhanced with fiery diamante spheres and brilliant freshwater pearls, another hairpin catches the light with each movement for a really glamorous look. This complex design is best for ceremonious wedding ceremonies. You might like to opt for an ultra-feminine style of tantalising freshwater pearl flowers enhanced by silver plated adoring scrolls. This hairpin is perfect to utilise with a lace-trimmed wedding gown. For understated elegance, pick hairpins embellished with an individual magnificent crystal. They appear like stars spread all through your hair! Yet another concept is to set hairpins in groups tactfully arranged as part of your 'do. To get a more unassuming look, wear hairpins embellished with only an individual pearl. These hairpins have already been featured in You & Your Wedding and Wedding magazines. For bridesmaids, there are hairpins decorated with coloured crystals to match their dresses to create a coordinated appearance.

Ornamented, decorated hairpins are a necessary part of your entire wedding outfit.

We hope you identified the Lapis Lazuli you have been looking for today. We show a large range of gemstones such as Lapis Lazuli on our site. Everyday we scour the internet to locate the best deals for Lapis Lazuli and other gems using our web portals. If for any reason you can"t find what you were searching for today, check out our other pages and categories on the right hand side or use the search box. Thank you for visiting gemstone store.


Rough Rose Quartz

Great deals on Rough Rose Quartz and other uncut stones. See our specially selected offers below to find the best buys for your Rough Rose Quartz online today.


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Prehistory and Eliot's Prufrock

Prehistory and Eliot's Prufrock

 

 

 

 I don't know why this part-stanza from Eliot's Prufrock makes me think of prehistory?

 

 

                    Let us go, then you and I,

                    When the evening is spread out against the sky

                    Like a patient etherized upon a table;

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

                    Is it due to what follows:

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

                    In the room women come and go

                    Talking of Michelangelo

 

 

But Michelangelo is a late-contemporary of pre-Columbian, if not a post-Columbian.

 

 

Associative processes of mind are indeed strange!

 

 

The word Prehistory is derived by combining the words pre- (meaning,before) and history, and is a term often used to describe the period before written history. Paul Tournal originally coined the term Pré-historique in describing the finds he had discovered in the caves of southern France.The French people started using it in the 1830s to describe the time before history writing had begun, while Daniel Wilson was the first Englishman to use the word in this sense in 1851.

Prehistory can be said to date back to the beginning of the universe itself, although the term is most often used to describe periods when there was life on Earth. Dinosaurs can be described as prehistoric animals and cavemen are described as prehistoric people.

It is so, because there are no written records from prehistoric times, and the things we know about those times are obtained from palaeontology and other natural and social sciences.

The term became somewhat loose in the 20th century when the boundary between history (interpretation of written and oral records) and other disciplines became less rigid. Actually,  historians at present rely more on evidence from multiple areas and do not generally restrict themselves to the historical period and written, oral or other symbolically encoded sources of communication. Moreover, the term 'history' is increasingly used in place of 'prehistory' to describe certain passages of time, such as History of the Earth, History of the Universe, and so on. Anyway, the distinction remains important to many scholars, particularly in the social sciences. Researchers mainly peering into Human prehistory are prehistoric archaeologists and physical anthropologists who use excavation, geographic survey, and scientific analysis to reveal and interpret the nature and behavior of pre-literate and non-literate peoples.

The chronogical terms used in human prehistory are different from those used in history. There is also difference in the way it deals with the activities of archaeological cultures instead of named nations or individuals. Restricted to material remains rather than written records (and indeed only those remains that have survived), prehistory is nameless, anonymous. Due to this reason, prehistoric refereces like Cro-Magnon or Stone Age are fuzzy, modern and to some extent arbitrary labels, the precise definition of which are often subject to discussion and argument.

It is, however, interesting that the beginning of history, that is, the date when written historical records became a useful academic resource, is the date marking the end of prehistory. And it varies from region to region! For example, in Egypt it is generally accepted that prehistory ended around 3800 BCE, whereas in New Guinea the prehistoric era culminated in the early years of the twentieth century.

 

Age systems 

After the evolution of humans on earth, a geological time scale defines periods in prehistory. Archaeology supplemented this record providing more precise divisions. Generally, prehistory in the Old World is designated by a three age system. This system classifies human prehistory under three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies. In the New World, however, other naming schemes are used, for example, those listed in Archaeology of the Americas. But, such loosely defined systems of dividing up prehistory are not quite accurate because recent archaeological discoveries suggest a much more complex view of prehistory.

 

The three-age system consists of Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. The Stone Age is further subdivided into Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic Periods. As stated earlier, these three consecutive age systems are named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies. The system is quite correct in describing the progression of European  society, and has also been used to describe other prehistories. However, it has been criticized for being too technologically determinist.

 

Stone Age and its People 

  

TheStone Ageis a broad prehistoric time period when humans widely used stone for tool making from a variety of different kinds of stone. Flint and chert were shaped (or chipped) for use as cutting tools and weapons.Basalt and sandstone were used for grinding and sharpening purposes, such as quern-stones. In addition, wood, bone, shell, antler and other materials were widely used. Sediments (like clay) were used to make pottery during the later part of the period. The subsequent Copper, Bronze and Iron Ages were characterized by a series of metal technology innovations.

The period witnessed the first widespread use of technology in human evolution, and humanity  spread from the savannas of East Africa to the rest of the world. Development of agriculture, domestication of certain animals and the smelting of copper ore to produce metal. It is named prehistoric because humanity had not learned to write yet. Written records are considered as the traditional starting point of history.

Archaeologists called it the "Stone Age" because stone tools made during this pre-metallurgic time survived far more widely than tools made from other, softer materials. It is the first age in the three-age system, and John Lubbock subdivided it into thePaleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in his now classic 1865 book, Pre-historic Times. These three periods are again subdivided because the succession of phases differs enormously from one region (and culture). In fact, humanity continued to step into new areas even during the metal ages. Homo habilis or the precursor of humanity evolved during the first phase or Paleolithic period of the Stone Age. Then, 1.75 million years ago, a new species - the Homo Erectus (upright man) appeared on the scene, and spread from Africa to Europe and Asia. The Upright Man not only stood erect, but also had a bigger brain than Homo habilis. He was capable of making better tools, and was probably the first human being to use fire. Then, about 400,000 years ago, the Homo sapiens or the thinking man made his debut, and humanity took its first. shaky step forward. Their descendants, the Neanderthal people (named after a valley in Germany), lived in Europe and the Middle East until about 35,000 years ago. They dealt with the severe cold of the Pleistocene or Ice Age by living in caves.

 

Prehistoric Culture

 

Apparently, two types of Homo sapiens lived side by side - the Neanderthals or early Homo sapiens and a subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens, who looked more or less like a modern human being. The Neanderthals were heavily built, but did not possess a chin. They used simple tools and had probably spoke to one another by developing a language. It is not known why they died out,  leaving us as the only humans on Earth. The survivors -- such as the Cro- Magnons -- lived all over Europe during the Stone Age period. These prehistoric people built simple wooden huts, fished and hunted deer and wild cattle. They wandered around in search of food. They began to express themselves through art, drawing pictures on cave walls and carving stones into human shapes. There are famous example of detailed cave paintings in Lascaux in France and Altamira Spain. The Lascaux painting, known as The Magician, shows a man with a pointy face and the body of a goat. The Altamira painting depicts a bull realistically  with enormously developed shoulder muscles.

 

Prehistoric life is a compendium of different types of organisms which inhabited the Earth from the origin of life nearly 3.8 billion years ago to the time when humans began to keep written records, known as the beginning of the Historic Period(circa 3500 BCE).

During the course of evlution new forms of life developed and many other forms, such as the dinosaurs, became extinct Prehistoric life evolved over this vast timespan from simple bacteria-like cells in the oceans to algae and protozoa, and ultimately to complex multicellular forms such as fungi, land plants, worms, molluscs, crustaceans, insects, and vertebrates.

In geologic terms, humans evolved very recently, only about 4 million years ago.

Very few species of prehistoric life (such as the coelacanth) still exist today unchanged, tens of millions of years later, thereby making them living fossils. Yet other creatures, like sharks, have changed but a little over millions of years.

However, most life forms -- over 99 percent -- have become extinct, and so the only record of them ever existing that remains today are rock imprints, casts or other fossils.

 

Prehistory of India 

 

The prehistory of India may be regarded as beginning with the old Stone age or the Palaeolithic period. India defines the eastern limit of the area where hand axes are found, and there are numerous other areas of different findspots. For instance, hominid remains of middle Pleistocene date have been found in Hathnora in the Narmada valley. A middle palaeolithic quarry has been found recently in the Kaladgi Basin, southern India.

 

Indus Valley Civilization and the emergence of Aryans

 

It is generally accepted that the Indus Vlley Civilization, which is also called the Harappan Civilization evolved and reached its peak between 3000 BC and 1800 BCE. It covered a wide area consisting of Afghanistan in the west to the Ganges plains in the east; as also the Pamir cluster in the north to the Rann of Kutch in the south. Traces of its traditional beginning, known as the Indus tradition have been detected at Mehrgarh going back to 7000 BCE. Believed to be     the largest among the so called Bronze age civilizations of the period, little is known about this lost civilization because attempts made by historians in deciphering the Harappan script have been in vain. Towards the end of the second millennium BCE, the civilization started to decline, and there is no clue as to where did the Harappans come from and what happened after 1700 BCE. However, apparently that was when the Aryans believed to have entered India through the Khyber Pass. Disagreements abound among contemporary Indologists over the exact events because the Harappans left a huge amount of archeology but no decipherable literature. The Aryans, in their turn, created and left for posterity a vast corpus of  literature in the form of vedas and other religious and literary works, but no archeological edifice. The elusive lost civilization of Harappa generates a lot of mystifying questions and problems, which would probably remain unanswered and unsolved for all time to come.

 

Anyway, it is an established fact that the people of India have had a continuous recorded civilization since the 7000 BC with its roots in the Mehrgarh complex of the Indus Tradition in northwest India. It was an urban culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade, reaching its most prosperous phase in the 2600 BCE in the valleys of the Indus river. Perhaps, ecological changes are behind the decline and eventual disappearance of this civilization between the 19th century BCE and 17th century BCE - no one knows.

 

However, satellite imagery and oceanographic studies supplement recent data indicating that the civilisation flourished even as far back as the 9000 BC. It has also been known (and found) that a tradition of Indian rock art dates back to 40 - 50,000 years.

 

 

History as defined by a timeline

 

Prehistory is assumed to be between 200000 BCE and 3500 BCE as also later;  the Three Age System (Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages) -- upto 3500 BCE;  Ancient history -- between 3500 BCE and 476 CE;  pre-Columbian -- from 14,000 BP to 1492 CE and later;  Classical Antiquity -- from 7th century BCE to 476 CE;  Middle Ages -- 476 CE to 1517 CE;  Modern history -- from the 15th century CE to present.    

 

The pre-Columbian era includes all the subsequent period subdivisions in the  history and prehistory of the Americas before European influences on the Continent became particularly noticeable. Notionally, the term means  the era before the first landing of Christopher Columbus in the American Continent  in 1492.  In effect, however, the era incorporates the history of American indigenous cultures as they went on flourishing even after 1492 till such time they were conquered or the European influences became significantly prominent. This could be  decades or even centuries after the first landing. 

 

Normally, the term pre-Columbian is used to mean the great indigenous civilizations of the Americas, especially those of the Mesoamerica :- of the Aztec and Maya;  and of the Andes, Moche and Chibcha civilizations.

 

Societal hierarchies of fascinating complexity, monumental architecture for civic and religious purposes, generally permanent or urban settlements and agriculture, all created without any outside influence, were the significant characteristics of the pre-Columbian civilizations. By the time the first permanent European settlers had arrived (between late fifteenth and early sixteenth century CE), many of these civilizations had ceased to function. These are now known only through archaeological investigations. Some contemporaries of them are also found in the historical accounts of the time. The Mayan Civilization had a script in which they had set their records. The invading Europeans regarded such texts as blasphemous and heretical to Christianity and burnt them in pyres. Somehow a few, presumably, hidden texts survived providing the modern historian with tantalising vistas of ancient culture and knowledge. 

 

Indigenous accounts as also American and European documents and records at the time of the European onslaught show that these civilizations were capable of doing fascinating things. For example, they had the most populous city of the time and they knew about the modern theories of astronomy and mathematics. Where they are extant, the culture and society of the descendants of such civilizations generally now be very different from the ancestral one. Even then, these people and their progeny display traits and follow traditions and practices originating in those earlier times and influenced by more recently acquired trends.   

 

Sequence of migration to the New World

 

Bering Land Bridge, which is the present day Bering Strait, was the passage for crossing over to the Americas by the nomads from Asia. Over time spanning millenniums (millennia?), they spread all over the continent. When exactly the first group of people did so is, as usual, a matter of controversies and debates. Anyway, the commonly held view is that people of the Clovis culture were the earliest, and were identified with sites going back to nearly14,000 years. Later on, sites as old as 20,000 years have been found, and genetic researches lead to the conclusion that the first batch of migrants reached the shores of Americas sometime between 40,000 to 13,000 years ago. Another belief is that the lands were populated by multiple waves of immigrants.

 

Be that as it may, archaeological finds in both North and South America are estimated to be 12,000 years old by Carbon dating, while Cape Horn, the southernmost place in South America, is belived to have been inhabited at around the same time. The common theme of agreement among all theories is that the Innuits and the related people (Eskimoes and such) arrived at Alaska separately much later (probably 6th century BCE) moving across the ice in Siberia.

 

Prehistory

 

The first complex civilization evolved after the migration or migrations around 5,000 BCE. Those people of the Americas were hunter gatherers, and they were inhabiting much of the continent's area upto the 18th century BCE even though the advanced civilizations had evolved by then. The archaeological cultures of such hunter gatherer societies can be identified as belonging to the categories, such as, Early and Late Paleo-Indian Periods; Archaic Period; and Early, Middle and Late Woodland Periods.              

 

Agricultural development

 

Such early inhabitants of the Americas started agricultural practices, raising maize having ears of lengths varying from 2 - 5 cms to even 10 -15 cms. Other plants grown by them were potatoes, pumpkins, tomatoes and avocadoes. As not many suitable species were available, there were not many livestocks. For meat, however, the guinea pig was raised in the Andes. Maize had been taken from Mexico in the fifteenth century CE to the Mississippi embayment and was grown as an agricultural crop there, but further developments were not possible due to the arrival of the Europeans at that time. The Incas grew potatoes, while the Aztecs farmed cocoa used in chocolates. When the Europeans arrived in North America, many Natives there were semi-nomadic tribes of hunter gatherers. Others belonging to agricultural and sedentary societies formed new tribes or confederations in retaliation to European colonization. Among them, the well-known groups were the Apache, the Cherokee, the Sioux, the Iroqouis and the Mohegan. The Iroquois consisted of a number of sub-groups like Mohawk, Oneida, Seneca, Cayuga, Onandaga and subsequently, the Tuscarora tribe. The Inuits are a later addition to such groups. There were numerous pre-Columbian sedentary societies in the present day United States of America, not so politically complex and technologically advanced as the Mesoamerican civilizations down south were.

 

Mississippian Culture

 

Occupying a large area along the Mississippi River, the people of the Mississippi Culture in pre-Columbian history earned the nickname the Moundbuilders because of their distinguishing characteristic of building large earthen mounds. Their society was complex and stratified, they cultivated intensely growing maize and other crops, and they carried on trading activities quite extensively. Emerging and growing out of the less intensively agricultural and less centralized Woodland period, the Mississippians appeared on the scene circa 1,000 CE. By 1200-1400, the Culture reached its peak, following which it apparently went on decline. In fact, when the Europeans there was not much left of it. Their largest site was Cahokia, located near present day East St. Louis, Illinois. The city apparently had a population of over 20,000. It was the most populous city in North America at the time of the flowering of the Mississippi Culture between the 12th and 13th centuries, but nowhere near the much larger cities in Mesoamerica and South America. Its ceremonial centre, the Monk's Mound, is regarded as the largest prehistoric earthen construction in the New World.        

 .

Mesoamerica

 

It is the region delineated by central Mexico in the south and the northwestern border of Costa Rica, and the land mass from which emerged a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations existing for nearly 3,000 years before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World in 1492 CE. The pre-Columbian culture of this region is generally known as Mesoamerican. Mesoamerica is an environmentally similar region where for more than three thousand years various ancient cultures having nearly similar views on art, architecture, religious beliefs and technology flourished and left their imprints and marks for posterity. Formation of complex cultures began in Mesoamerica circa 1800 BCE, and continued for the next 1500 years. Some of them made progress and gave rise to advanced pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations like the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Huastec, Purepecha, Toltec and Mexica, and continued for about 4,000 years before the first encounter with the Europeans. Such indigenous civilizations built pyramids and temples; created highly accurate calendars by abacus calculations along with a complex theology; made significant progress in astronomy, engineering, fine arts, intensive agriculture, medicine and writing; and discovered the wheel. As they did not possess any animal to drag loads, the wheel was used only as a toy. They knew how to work on metals and used copper and gold obtained locally to make various objects. They excelled in counting and devised one of the most complex counting system in the world with a base of 20 number system. Archaic inscriptions on rocks and rock walls of northern Mexico, particularly in the province of Nuevo Leon, are testimonies to their expertise in counting and number systems. Astronomical events influenced the Mexican Natives to a great extent, and those very early and ancient counting marks were associated with astronomical activities long before the Europeans came on the scene. It would appear that the Mexican based civilizations coming later built their ceremonial centres and cities by taking into account specific astronomical events.

 

Mesoamerican cities like Cholula and Teotihuacan were among the largest cities in the world of their time. Growing up as centres of ceremonies and commerce; and of ideas and theology, those cities provided inspiration to the neighbouring cultures in central Mexico. Such city-states, empires and kingdoms competed with one another and often went into war for power and prestige. Generally, however, Mesoamerica could be regarded as the seat of five major civilizations - the Mexica and the Maya; the Olmec; and the Teotihuacan and the Toltec.

With the exception of the politically divided Maya, the other four spread out to exert their influence over Mexico and beyond its boundaries. Consolidating their power over the neighbouring regions, they went on influencing the latter in matters of art and trade; politics and technology; as also theology. The regional powers formed economical and political alliances with them to make peace, and, in general, everybody was under the thrall of one of these five spheres of influence.    

        

Olmec civilization

 

It is the earliest known civilization in Mesoamerica, setting the pattern of cultural development, which the societies formed later in Mexico were to follow. Beginning from around 2300 BCE, the Olmec culture started making potteries in abundance. Then followed the consolidation of power beyween 1800-1500 BCE by the Olmec chiefs and the founding of a capital in a site near the coast in southeast Veracruz, a place known today as San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan. Across Mexico, the Olmec spread their influence, then to Central America and continued along the Gulf of Mexico. A new form of government, pyramid-temples, astronomy, art, mathematics, economics, writing and religion were the areas in which their excellence changed the thinking of many people. The greatness of the yet to come Maya civilization in the east and the flowering of the civilizations to the west in central Mexico owed a lot to the achievements of the Olmec.

 

Teotihuacan civilization

 

As the Olmec civilization declined, there was a power vacuum in Mexico. The Teotihuacan culture forming around 300 BCE filled that space. Circa 150 CE, it had developed considerably  making Teotihuacan the first genuine metropolis in contemporary North America. Teotihuacan introduced a form of economic and political order which was unlike anything seen before in Mexico. Extending its influence across Mexico, Teotihuacan established new dynasties in the Maya cities of Copan, Kaminaljuyu and Tikal. Bringing about changes in artistic illustrations, political power and the nature of economics, Teotihuacan's influence over the near contemporary Maya civilization remained intact for a long time. The residents of the city of Teotihuacan were diverse and cosmopolitan; they represented many of the regional ethnicities of Mexico, for example, the Zapotecs hailing from the Oaxaca region. People lived in apartment communities where they worked on their professions and thus improving the qualities of the city's cultural and economic aspects. By 500 CE, Teotihuacan had become the largest city in the world exercising its economic clout to regions far in northern Mexico.The architecture of the city, especially its monuments, conveyed the spirit of the times: a truly monumental era. The political decline began around 650 CE, but the cultural supremacy was maintained for 300 years more.

 

Maya civilization 

 

Closely following the Teotihuacan culture was the Maya civlization, which reached the pinnacle of its glory between 250 and 650 CE. It was the time when the attributes of the Maya culture bloomed fully. Consisting of several city-states, the Maya civilisation failed to cobble political unity in the manner of the central Mexican cultures. But that did not deter Maya to provide a beneficial and forceful intellectual leadership to the Central American and Mexican cultures. The Maya cities were built with very detailed planning and were far ahead of the cities elsewhere in the continent. Their tremendous contributions in astronomy, mathematics and writng elevated the status of  Mexico to greater heights.

 

Aztec/Mexica civilization

 

Political fragmentation ensued in the Valley of Mexico, when the Toltec civilisation went into a decline. Into those troubled waters came to fish, for the Toltec mantle, complete outsiders - people of the Mexica civlization. Born and brought up in a desert climate, they were one of the seven fiercely proud groups who earlier preferred to be called Azteca to preserve the memory of Aztlan. Owing to frequent migrations from one place to another, they changed their name to Mexica. They were regarded as crude and uncivilized because of their origin from some place other than the Valley of Mexico. But they were shrewd and skilled in ferocious fighting. Combining these two traits, they formed a triple political alliance with two other Aztec cities, Texcoco and Tlacopan, and became the leader of the group. 

 

Though they came later to the central plateau of Mexico, from the start the Mexicas bestowed on themselves the legacy of the civilizations before them. Achievements of the earlier residents of Tula, the Toltec society, they identified as their own. These included fine arts, architecture, engraving, feather-mosaic works and the introduction of a calendar. Around 1400 CE, the Mexica-Aztecs became the rulers of a large part of central Mexico while Apaches, Coras and Yaquis controlled most of the regions of northern desert. By 1470, they consolidated their positions further after conquering most of the regional states. At that time 300,000 Mexicas held sway over 10 million people (among the total 24 million population of Mexico) who paid tributes to them. The modern nation of Mexico owes its name to them. Present day Mexico City was the site of their capital, Tenochtitlan. It was peopled by nearly 300,000 residents and boasted of a market which the conquistadors (from Europe) said the largest they had ever seen.

             

South America

 

In the first millennium of the Christian Era, the vast rainforests, mountains, plains and coasts of South America were inhabited by tens of millions of people, some of them settling down permanently. Among such permanent settlers, the Chibchas of Colombia, the Quechuas of Peru, and the Aymaras of Bolivia were the three major sedentary Indian societies in South America. It would appear that they were in contact with the Polynesians as indicated by the availability of sweet potato in some regions of the Pacific, but there is no trace of genetic imprint left behind by the visitors.    

 

Chibchas

 

Among the pre-Hispanic Colombians, the Chibcha linguistic communities were the largest. They  occupied a large territory and were socio-economically well developed.They laid the foundation of their civlization in the Andes in the third century CE. Modern Panama and the higher areas of the Eastern Sierra of Colombia were under their occupation at one time. The Departments of North and South Santander, Boyaca and Cundinamarca were also held by them. These are the areas where the first farms and the first industries were developed and the movement for independence was started. At present these areas are the richest in Colombia, and at one time were the most populous zone between the Inca and the Mexica civilizations. Of the sedentary indigenous cultures of South America (including the Quechua of Peru and the Aymara of Bolivia), the Chibchas of the eastern and north-eastern Highlands of Colombia were the most advanced.The Chibchas of the Oriental Andes were remarkable in the sense that the various tribes (Muiscas, Laches, Guanes, Chitareos and so on) among the population spoke in a common language, Chibchan.     

 

Norte Chico

 

The Norte Chico on the northern coast of Modern Peru was a cluster of big urban settlements whic formed and devloped circa 3,000 BCE, contemporaries of similar cultures in Mesopotamia. They flourished for about 1200 years, and then declined. One of the largest and most investigated sites among them is in Caral in the Supe Valley. 

 

Chavín

 

The Chavin, archaeological finds and investigations point out, was a pre-literate civilization which lasted for about 600 years from 900 BCE. Agricultural development and establishment of a trade network were among its characteristics. The archaeological discoveries were made at a site known as Chavin in modern Peru at a height of 3,177 metres above sea level.

 

Moche

 

The Moche culture flourished 1,500 to 2,000 years before present in the north coast of Peru. They had elaborate burial rituals discovered recently by Christopher Donnan of UCLA in collaboration with with the National Geographic of the USA. People of this culture were technologically advanced as is revealed in their skilled artisanship. Their ceramic pottery carvings depict generally religious practices along with scenes from their daily lives. It is known from such sources that they practiced human sacrifice and carried out blood-drinking rituals.  

 

Inca

 

The great cougar-shaped city of Cusco was the seat of power (capital) of the Inca civilization, which dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533 CE. It was called the "land of the four regions" or Tawantin suyu in Quechua and was a very advanced civilization of the times. Under the Inca rule lived nearly hundred ethnic or linguistic communities comprising of 9 to 14 million people connected by a 25,000 kilometre road network. They built the cities with detailed planning and their houses were constructed of unmatched stones. Such houses were built over many levels on the sides of a mountain.Terrace farming was a natural corollary to such practices and increased the agricultural output. Exquisitely crafted metalworks of the Inca civilization are extant, and there is evidence of successful brain surgery carried out in the Inca civilisation.

 

Australia

 

The prehistory of Australia begins about 40 to 70,000 years ago with the first human habitation of the Continent and ends in 1606 with the first definitive sighting of Australia by the Europeans.              

 

Arrival of humans

 

A matter of controversy, the generally accepted timeframe for the migration of humans to Australia is between 40 to 45,000 years ago. There is an upper range supported by others going back to 70,000 years. The return of the ice age due to repeated glaciation during the Pleistocene period cooled and turned a lot of sea water into ice, due to which the level of the seas went down to the extent of 100 to 150 metres thus exposing previously submerged land bridges joining various land masses. Apparently, migration took place in the closing period of the Pleistocene era when the sea levels were much below than at present. Due to this, the continental coastline extended out considerably into the Timor Sea , and Australia and New Guinea became a single landmass called Sahul. Large, far-reaching land bridges across the Arafura Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria and Torres Strait joined Australia to New Guinea. It is believed that the ancestral people initially navigated the relatively short distances from and  between the Sunda Islands to reach Sahul. Having done that, they made use of the land bridges to spread out all over the continent. There are archaeological evidences of human habitation in the upper Swan River, Western Australia nearly 40,000 years ago. Tasmania was the next destination via a land bridge, and was reached by humans around 30,000 years ago.

 

A consequence of such early land bridges is the sharing of plant and animal animal species between Australia-New Guinea and the neighbouring Indonesian islands. Those land bridges vanished when rising sea water flooded them at the close of the last glacial period. The rising of the sea level due to melting ice stopped, roughly, about 6,000 years ago, and since then remained more or less constant. That is when, according to the traditions of indigenous Australians, the history of the continent begins. They call it Dreamtime, the mythical saga of creation narrating the origins of the people, animals and geography. The traditions of Dreamtime pervaded the indigenous Australians and still do in songs and stories all over Australia.

 

The presence of charcoal in archaeological excavations indicates that fire had been a part of the Australian landscape always. The incidence of fires increased when the hunter gatherer inhabitants started using it to scare away animals as well as to produce a new flush of vegetation to attract herbivores. They also started fires to burn off  and open up impenetrable forests. This resulted in densely grown areas becoming more open sclerophyll forests and open forests turning into grasslands. There was a profusion of fire-tolerant species, notably, sheoaks, euclypts, acacia and grasses.

 

The fires, however, brought about far more dramatic changes in the fauna than it did in the flora. Megafauna, defined as species considerably bigger than the humans, completely disappeared while the smaller species fared little better. It is estimated that 60 different vertebrates became extinct, including the Diprotodon species, very large marsupial herbivores closely resembling hippos. The list of the vanished include several flightless birds, carnivorous kangaroos, lizards of 5 metres length, a tortoise with the dimensions of a small car and so on...Why did it (extinctions) happen remains a matter of conjecture. It could be fire, hunting, climate change or a combination of all. Experts, however, agree that it was human intervention of one kind or another which speeded up the process. Climate change, once regarded as the probable cause, is no longer in favour. In the absence of large herbivores, the understorey vegetation grew up unchecked; rapid recycling of soil nutrients due to their dung stopped; and consequently there was more quick fuel build up. The fires burned hotter, altering the landscape more.      

 

The Australis meaning Australia and its surroundings during the last glacial maximum about 18,000 years ago was very different from what it is today. The sea level was about 150 metres below the present level, and large parts of the Sunda Shelf (Malaya/South East Asia), Sahul Shelf/Australia-New Guinea and the Bass Strait were above it. Moreover, portions of southern Aotearoa, the Tasmanian highlands and the Australian Alps were glaciated, and the Antarctic ice covered much more area in the north than it is today.

 

Prior to European colonization the quantum of populations settled in Australia is not known. There are two hypotheses, the trihybrid and single-origin settlers, and both of them have been discussed extensively. The issue, however, acquired political overtones when single-origin was assumed to be tied in to ethnic solidarity and multiple entry was cited in justification of the seizure of Aboriginal lands by European settlers. Not much objective data is available to reach a definite conclusion. There is an ongoing research on human genomic differences to find a conclusive answer, but there is not much evidence to differentiate the "wave invasion" model from the "single settlement" one.  

 

There was increased aridity due to low temperatures and less rainfall in the continent between 18,000 to 15,000 years BP. When the Pleistocene era ended around 13,000 years ago, the link from Kangaroo Island, the Bassian Plain between modern Victoria and Tasmania, and the Torres Strait connection got submerged in the rising sea. Apparently,the end of the ice age was quite sudden - as reflected in Aborignal legends of fishes falling from the sky and of water walls(tsunamis).The situation elsewhere was not that catastrophic, the sea level rose slowly. The result was geographical separation of the Tasmanian Aborigines from the continent and slow decimation of those living in the small islands in the Bass Strait and in Kangaroo Island by 9,000 BP.

 

The Austronesians of modern New Guinea and the indigenous Australians (Aborigines) maintained contact after geographical separation, as is supported by linguistic and genetic evidence. However, it was mostly trade, little intermarriage and absolutely not a colonisation, even though there were instances of Aboriginal settlers finding a home in Indonesia.   

 

Culture

 

Over the last 5,000 years the climate mellowed down with increases in temperature and rainfall, bringing forth a sophisticated tribal culture. Their items of trade were flint, precious stones, shells, seeds, spears, foodstuff and so on. People from Cape York to south-west Australia spoke the Pama-Nyungan language, excepting those in the south-east and Arnhem Land. Religious ideas, legends, stories, songs and dances were much the same throughout the country. Coming of age or initiation of the young to adult ways of life was celebrated by ceremony and feasting. There was a code of behaviour , and the responsibilities of an individual to relatives and others were marked out. There were moieties among communities with powers to forbid intermarriages in the community. Unlike the usual hereditary chiefs, community elders held political power who settled disputes in accordance with tribal customs. Vendettas and feuds were there, but planned wars were totally absent. As people believed that they were the descendants of the same cultural heroes, and there were bonds through marriage or blood, differences were not resolved by going into war.     

 

3,000 years before colonisation, the indigenous Australians had been using quartz as a substitute for chert in their craftwork. For increasing food sources, they planted yam in Western Australia and carried out fish (eel) farming.

 

In 1788, there were approximately half a million indigenous Australians or Aborigines - other estimates put the figure as one million. They were composed of hundreds of distinct cultural and language groups; most of them were hunter-gatherers; and they practiced land management. The last perhaps was a lesson they learnt from the ecological havoc their initial settlement thousands of years ago had caused. In areas with lakes and rivers, such as Murray River Basin, the hunter-gatherers changed their professions to fish farming. The European settlers displayed no interest in the indigenous Australians, and perhaps made little effort to know about their cultures and languages. Legend has it that before the Europeans started settling in Australia in bulk, diseases were deliberately introduced to decimate the indigenous Australians also in bulk, so as to minimise the exposure of the first to the second. In 1770, when James Cook declared Australia as a part of the British Empire, there were nearly 500 tribes among the Native population speaking several hundred different Australian Aboroginal languages, with many different dialects.   

 

Contact outside Australia

 

Before the Europeans came, for thousands of years people residing along the northern coastline, that is, the Kimberley region of Western Australia, Arnhem Land, Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape York had interacted and traded with people from outside. Even after the land bridges were submerged as also before the event, commodities of trade along with people moved freely between New Guinea and Australia 6,000 years ago. With the bridges flooded, the trade and people to people contact continued across the newly-formed Torres Strait, whose 150 kilometre width was navigated by stopping at the intermediate islands and Coral reefs along the route. Settlers in those islands were seagoing Melanesians, and the indigenous Australians from northeast of the continent maintained a cultural link to the outside world through this route nearly 2,500 years ago. The visits of the Indonesians and the people of New Guineea to the Australians and vice versa for fishing and trade by sailing crafts point to the possibility of similar forays by the Arab and the Chinese traders as earlly as 9th century CE. The controversial Bradshaw figurines in Kimberley art are stated to have been brought by Indian visitors in the early years of the Christian Era. For several hundred years, Indonesian "Bajini" fishermen from Spice Islands (e.g., Banda Island) had fished off the coast of Australia. Nearly, 400 years ago Macassan traders of Sulawesi (Celebes) regularly came to the northern coast of Australia for trepang (an edible sea cucmber) to trade with the Chinese.

    

Prehistoric Art

 

Prehistoric art is defined as all artwork created in preliterate cultures, which begins somewhere very recent in the geological time scale. 

 

In Algeria, cave paintings of everyday life in central North Africa were found in Tassili-n-Ajjer, north of  Tamanrasset and in other places drawn in a vivid and realistic manner. Those works of art dating back to 6 - 10,000 years were created by hunters of the Caspian period of the Neolithic Age roaming about in tall grasslands full of gigantic buffaloes, elephants, rhinoceros and hippopotamus. Such animals are no longer found in the region which is now arid and almost like a desert. Those cave paintings are a record of prehistoric African culture.

 

Predecessors of such people in the central North Africa had left behind for posterity equally important remains. Ain el Hanech near Saida yielded signs of early hominid occupation in North Africa nearly 200,000 years before present. More recently, investigators discovered there signs of Oldowan technique dating back to nearly 1.8 million years BCE. Much later, about 45,000 years ago, Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles, similar to those found in the East Mediterranean region. North Africa, some sources indicate, represent the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic flake-tool techniques. Oranian or Ibero-Maurusian is the term used to describe the earliest blade industries  in North Africa, named so because of the findspot near a place called Oran. Apparently, this technique of creating stone daggers spread all over the coastal regions of North Africa during 15,000 to 10,000 BCE.  Then the method came under the gradual influence of  the Caspian culture for the next 5,000 years with the result that from 3,000 BCE remains of just one human type can be found throughout the region. About 4 to 8,000 years ago, Neolithic culture with its characteristics of animal domestication and subsistence agriculture took hold in the Mediterranean and Saharan North Africa. Upto the classical period, this Neolithic way of life prevailed in North Africa, and the cave paintings in Tassili-n-Ajjer are a detailed illustration of that.  Such people of different ethnicity in North Africa over time gave rise to a distinct native population called Berbers. Even though they had clearly perceptible cultural and linguistic characteristics, the Berbers continued to be ignored and neglected in historical accounts due to the presence of larger empires nearby. They are mentioned as barbaric enemies, ignorant peasants or troublesome nomads by Roman, Greek, Byzantine and Arab Muslim historians. This marginalisation is uncalled for because the roll the Berbers played in the history is not insignificant.

 

Indigenous Australian (Aboriginal) rock and bark paintings indicate a vigorous cultural exchange with the neighbouring islands of the continent; as also the introduction of techniques like the dug-out canoe and items like tobacco and pipes for smoking it. Intermarriage and migration among descendants of Malaya people in Australian Aboriginal communities and vice versa resulted in acquisition of Macassan words in Aboriginal languages (for example, Balanda for White person). 

 

Middle Acheulean period spanning 500,000 to 300,000 years before present hold the still unbroken record of the first ever dicovered figurine; 6 cms. in length, it looks like a human figure, and was found in Morocco. It appears from evidence that this piece from Morocco was shaped by natural processes with probably no human tool-work. There are, however, indications of the figurine having been painted. A greasy substance composed of a mixture of iron and manganese (ochre) covers the surface of the stone. Experts are of the view that no matter how it was formed, it was undoubtedly painted by someone who used it as a figurine.      

 

The history of art was indeed shaken at its roots by the findings in the South African Blombos Cave. Stones discovered there are decorated with complex red arrays. It showed that the creator or creators, the early Homo Sapiens were capable of abstraction and of its representation as a work of art. The breath-taking aspect is that those stones were adorned 70,000 years ago, which is nearly 50,000 years more than the age of the art-work found in Lascaux, France. There is no doubt about the dating; but there is no indication that the pieces really do represent advanced cognitive behaviour, a hallmark of modern art. A number of eminent archaeologists are, however, not convinced that the Blombos Cave is the first example of art.

 

Cave paintings (like the renowned ones at Alta Mira, Chauvet, Lascaux and Pech Merle) and portable art (like animal carvings and the widely-known Venus figurine,  the Venus of Willendorf) are the earliest examples of European art from the Upper Palaeolithic epoch. It is generally believed that only Homo Sapiens have the ability to express in an art form. That is not exactly true because Homo Erectus had created much before the former apparently purposeless designs on artefacts. Artefacts of this kind were found in Bilzingsleben, Thuringia, and could be regarded as the precursor of art. Those items reveal that the maker's intention was to decorate, and to create something which had no practical application. But that does not mean  all art works are of no use. There are Middle Palaeolithic tools like hand axes in general and laurel points in particular, in shaping which so much attention was given to symmetry that experts regard them as works of art as well. After the recent discovery of the mask of La Roche-Cotard in France, it is now believed that Neanderthal  man could possibly have to his credit a meaningful artistic culture. Also relevant in this context are the findings from the Mizyn Archaeological Site of Ukraine, Mammoth ivory bracelets with carved meander ornaments dating back to Mousterian epoch of the Palaeolithic period. The Mesolithic period has also provided some examples of  portable  stylized rock art like painted pebbles from Birseck and Eremitage sites in Switzerland as also in the Spanish Levant. Artistic designs on items of use, for example, rowing paddles from Tybrind, Denmark are well-known in Mesolithic archaeological finds. 

 

Neolithic

 

In ancient Japan, the Jomon culture is credited with making potteries from braided and unbraided clay cords. Archaeological evidence shows that Jomon people were making clay figures and vessels adorned with increasingly sophisticated patterns by pressing the designs on wet clay in the 14th to 11th millennium BCE. Free standing sculptures decorated with animal figures started to be installed in the Neolithic period. The earliest were anthropomorphic figurines usually embellished circa 10th millennium BCE, and were found in Nevali Cori and Gobekle Tepe near Urfa in eastern Turkey.

 

In Lepenski Vir, the Mesolithic statues at the Iron Gate, Serbia are dated 7th millennium BCE, and depict humans or fishes and humans together. Many Neolithic cultures in Central Europe like Linearbandkeramic, Lengyel and Vinca made female figurines (rarely male) and animal figures with artistic qualities. In this context, Zelisovsce and painted Lengyel style of potteries with elaborate decorations are not always regarded as works of art.  Monuments made from large stones or megalithic structures of the Neolithic period are found from Poland to the British Isles, in the tip of the Sahara desert at Nabata, Egypt; and some more sites. As they belong to the 5th millennium BCE, some experts call them mesolithic; but, that is difficult to prove. The temples in Malta, not quite widely-known, constructed circa 3600 BCE are the oldest free standing structure in the world. Simply built with post and lintel architecture, they look very imposing. Likewise, there are Minoan (Crete) structures, built at the time of the more famous Egyptian Pyramids.  During the early Bronze Age, the equally famous Stonehenge was erected near Amesbury, Wiltshire, England. In fact, many such monuments are there in Western and Northern Europe, and can be found in Carnac, France; in Skara Brae in the Orkney Islands; and in Portugal. The Avebury Circle, the tombs at West Kennet and the Woodhenge also belong to this group. The tomb in New Grange, Ireland has a big stone at its entrance, on the face of which is carved a complex design of spirals. Stones of the tomb at Knowth have ornamental carvings, one of which could possibly be the oldest known image of the Moon. A number of these megalithic monuments are tombs, and archaeologists believe these have some religious significance. The tomb at Knowth is so richly ornamented with carvings that experts elieve it contains about one third of all megalithic art in Western Europe.                   

 

Bronze Age

 

The Bronze Age began in Europe the in 3rd millennium BCE ushering in a new medium for art. As tools made from bronze are more durable than those made of stone, more items were produced resulting in a surplus - the prime requirement for the formation of a class of artisans. With the creation of more wealth in the society than ever before, the demand for luxury goods, especially decorated weapons, increased. Now, there were bronze headgears, ornamental axe-heads and swords; things like lure used in falconry; and other ceremonial objects without a practical purpose. There was a profusion of rock carvings (made by bronze chisels) depicting scenes of daily life and religious ceremonies like those in Bohuslan, Sweden and the Val Camonica in  northern Italy.

 

Iron Age

 

In the Iron age, anthropomorphic sculptures were made, like the Warrior of Herschlanden and the statue from Glauberg, Germany. Perhaps under the influence of the Classical world resulting from trade, the Hallstatt artists in the early Iron Age preferred desgns of abstract and geometreical nature. A curvilinear and elaborate artistic style was developed in early Iron Age Europe in a centre at the Rhine valley which spread all over the continent in no time. Ostentatious living became the way of the rich chieftains following the Classical tradition, and wine drinking from richly ornamented bronze cups became the norm. In the Celtic culture, people often used to feast and drink together, and artistic expressions started to bloom in plates, knives, cauldrons and such other vessels. Weapons and horse-riding gears were also decorated, and the ornamentatinos had mythical and relegious elements as motif in stylized and naturalistic forms. Construction of megalithic monuments continued, as illustrated in the existing carved limestone pillars of the sanctuary at Entremont in France. Torc or twisted metal necklaces became a personal wear, and introduction of  coins provided ample scope for artistic experimentation. The coins were, however, poorly made copies of the Greecian and Roman coins, but the Celtic exuberance was very much there. Burying a person/warrior in his chariot was a practice in China in the 1200 BCE; the Celts did so at the famous Waldalgesheim site in the Rhineland much later, and made flagons and bronze plaques with reclining human figures in what is known as Celtic or La Tene style. The bronze plaques and others had curvy and organic   decorations, presumably after the Classical tendril patterns. This artistic style prevailed in estern Europe and can be seen in the art and architecture of Roman villas. Areas where oman influence never reached, most famously, Ireland and Northumbria this later Iron age rtisic tradition appeared later and continued very much in the historic period.               

 

Africa

According to present state of  information first of the humans were born in Africa, and developed subsequently from that continent. It seems the first band of hunter-gatherers roamed the dales, vales, and plains there. But, there are few sites witness to the great flowering of Upper Palaeolithic art and culture, apart fom the odd venus figurine from Morocco and the controversial Blombos cave. Any way , there are pointers that the hominids staying there had much better conception of the world around, than hitherto assumed. Still, Bushman cave and rock paintings are there in Wateberg, an area near thePalala River. The rock carvings depict a wide range of wild animals, especially antelopes, along with human motifs in a clear, uncluttered manner.

 

Americas

 

Societal hierarchies of fascinating complexity, monumental architecture for civic and religious purposes, generally permanent or urban settlements and agriculture, all created without any outside influence, were the significant characteristics of the pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas. By the time the first permanent European settlers had arrived (between late fifteenth and early sixteenth century CE), many of these civilizations had ceased to function. These are now known only through archaeological investigations. Some contemporaries of them are also found in the historical accounts of the time. The Mayan Civilization had a script in which they had set their records. The invading Europeans regarded such texts as blasphemous and heretical to Christianity and burnt them in pyres. Somehow a few, presumably, hidden texts survived providing the modern historian with tantalising vistas of ancient culture and knowledge. 

 

Mesoamerican :-  Mesoamerica is an environmentally similar region where for more than three thousand years various ancient cultures having nearly similar views on art, architecture, religious beliefs and technology flourished and left their imprints and marks for posterity. Formation of complex cultures began in Mesoamerica circa 1800 BCE, and continued for the next 1500 years. Some of them made progress and gave rise to advanced pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations like the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Huastec, Purepecha, Toltec and Mexica, and continued for about 4,000 years before the first encounter with the Europeans. Such indigenous civilizations built pyramids and temples; created highly accurate calendars by abacus calculations along with a complex theology; made significant progress in astronomy, engineering, fine arts, intensive agriculture, medicine and writing; and discovered the wheel. As they did not possess any animal to drag loads, the wheel was used only as a toy. They knew how to work on metals and used copper and gold obtained locally to make various objects. They excelled in counting and devised one of the most complex counting system in the world with a base of 20 number system. Archaic inscriptions on rocks and rock walls of northern Mexico, particularly in the province of Nuevo Leon, are testimonies to their expertise in counting and number systems. Astronomical events influenced the Mexican Natives to a great extent, and those very early and ancient counting marks were associated with astronomical activities long before the Europeans came on the scene. It would appear that the Mexican based civilizations coming later built their ceremonial centres and cities by taking into account specific astronomical events.

 

Oceania

 

Indigenous Australians, beginning with the first settlers from Asia had a distinctive artistic tradition visible in their rock paintings. For instance, there is the class of paintings known as x-ray paintings, in which the bones and organs of the subject depicted are shown. As some kind of abstraction generally forms their art theme, to the modern viewer the works often appear to be abstract art. They represent environment and landscape by geometrical figures and shapes and generally show that on a plan view, that is, a bird's eye view. For example, in an Aboriginal work, a swirl means a watering hole. In Western Austrslia, there are rock paintings known as the Bradshaws.Drawn in fine details with accurate anatomical proportions, the works are17,000 years old, and the identity of the creators remains a matter of controversy. Likewise, the Polynesian Natives also left behind a clearly different artistic heritage. As their artefacts were generally made with organic materials, most of them were lost due to decay. Those made from bone and clay are strikingly beautiful, as is evident from the shards of pottery dating to late 2nd millennium BCE. Also left behind in the Polynesian islands, are stone platforms and ancestor sculptures. The marvelous statues located in the Easter Islands belong to this group.

 

Music

 

Music as culture arrived quite late, very late in the geological time scale, and prehistoric music can be defined as all of the world's music which was there before anything was known about them. Examples of this are the traditional Native American music of the pre-literate tribes and the music of the Indigenous Australians or Aborigines. Ancient music took the place of prehistoric music in Europe around 1500 BCE and later in other European influenced areas. It is, however, customary to call the music of the non-European continents, notably the music which is surviving, as folk or indigenous or traditional music It is not known how or when music was first played or sung because there is no record of it. Generally, however, it is believed that music evolved from naturally occurring rhythms and sounds like the murmur of a brook, the crash of a thunder and the sigh of wind, borrowing from them patterns, repitition and tonality. Not only birds sing and trill, but also monkeys have been seen to beat on hollow logs to produce percussive sounds. It is said that they do so to establish authority over a certain territory (as far as the sound is heard, perhaps), but in the effort there is a whiff of creativity and an attempt to start a call and response dialogue. With regard to musical instrument, the human voice is the first one ever. It produces a wide variety of sounds, from singing, humming and whistling to clicking, coughing and yawning. There is a Neanderthal hyoid (u-shaped bone in the neck supporting the tongue) 60,000 years old and a bone flute dating 50,000 years,  giving the impression that music was played at that time. As, however , both the specimens are one of their kind, no definite conclusion is possible.    

 

It seems the first rhythmic percussive sound was produced by clapping of hands, by hitting stones together and so on. Theoretically, music can be traced to the Oldowan era of the Palaeothic period, the anthropological and archaeological time when stone tools were first used by hominids. Work noises like pounding of seeds and roots into food can also be regarded as rhythmic sounds made by early humans.

 

General relation to culture, function, complexity and style are the important features of prehistoric music, which generally vary from one place to the other. In a clay tablet, stated to be 4,000 years old, the world's earliest known song is inscribed in Assyrian cuneiform script. Adiatonic composition, it is also the oldest example of harmony in the manner of English gymel. It, however, cannot be called prehistoric because it is a written piece.  As regards the oldest notated song from anywhere in the western world,  the First Delphic Hymn is undoubtedly the earliest surviving example.

  

The oldest flute is the controversial "Neanderthal Flute" discovered in 1995 in the Divje Cave, Idrijca Valley, Western Slovenia. Found in thefifth Mousterian level of the Palaeolithic period, the flute is a hollow femur of a baby cave bear. It is estimated to be 43,000 years old and has holes as in a flute. There is no unanimity on the opinion that it is a man made flute of bone: others feel that it is a carnivore chewed-up piece. At the period of its date, there was neither a method for making holes on a bone, nor was the conceoptual idea of a flute developed. There are weak indications, the number of which are steadily increasing with new finds that the Neanderthal Man was much closer to modern humans intellectually than thought previously.     

Recently (1999) at Henan , China, several Gudis (literary meaning, bone flute) dating 9,000 BCE and having 5 to 8 holes each have been found. They were made from the hollow bones of the bird, the Red-crowned Crane. One of the flutes was found still playable and produced both the five- or seven-note scale of Xia  Zhi  and six-note scale of Qing Shang of the ancient ancient  Chinese musical system.    

   

Cycladic culture

 

Cyclades are a group of small islands in the Aegean Sea. In the island named Keros among them, two marble statues from the late Neolithic culture (in this instance, called Early Cycladic culture) were discovered in a single excavation in the 19th century CE.  The statues are those of a standing double-flute player and a sitting musician playing a triangular-shaped lyre or harp and were scul

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Where can I buy cheap, natural, rocks and minerals?

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Diamonds- being left behind by the girls during this recession

It seems even the jewellers are suffering due to the recession, which sales of gemstone jewellery and jewellery in general are down.

Countries exporting their gemstones are seeing a sharp decline in supply and demand, as the compannies are being hit harder than producers of other more essential goods. The larger Jewellery retail companies, Bulgari and Tiffanis are sales and demand from the US and Europe, which are the bigger markets drop by 80 percent in december, and most retailers are worried about surviving, rather than making a profit. Many jewellers say that November and December are responsible for forty percent of their yearly takings, and saw a huge decrease in the number of people buying across the range of jewellery available. This resulted in the January sales taking place before Christmas in an attempt to boost takings last year and make any money they can. Even diamonds, a girls best friend has seen sales decline, demand ahs dropped and so has the price- but not by too much, as they're still selling better than gemstones.

In order to deal with their surplus gemstones India have opened their first 'heat treatment' centre, to deal with rose quartz, rubies and other gemstones. Heat threatment involves using extreme heating and cooling methods to change the pyshical or chemical process of the stones, which will usually soften or harden the item in question. Up until now the work was usually done sent to other countries where the work could be done, such as Thailand, Japan and Germany, but now India will be able to compete with them and use this to train more professionals in the process.

So the recession has hit, and now the jewellers are going to have to do something to survive in the long run or face bankruptcy - a grim prospect for anyone.

We hope you found the Rough Rose Quartz you were searching or today. We show a large range of gemstones such as Rough Rose Quartz and other rough gemstones. Everyday we search the internet to locate the best deals for Rough Rose Quartz and other gems using our special web portals. If you can"t find the stones you were searching for today, check out our other llinks on the right hand side or use the search box. Thank you for visiting gemstone store.


Rough Amethyst

Great deals on Rough Amethyst and other uncut stones. See our specially selected offers below to find the best buys for your Rough Amethyst online today.


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5805CT Natural 1st Grade Cleaning color rough Amethyst for cut cab+ Gems
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586 ct Natural Green Facet Rough AMETHYST
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Interesting Video About Rough Amethyst


#8 Uruguayan Amethyst Rough Facet EXTRA FINE - 19.5 Cts

Rough Amethyst

Environmentally friendly and fabulous: Sam and Goldie Jewelry

Today, being environmentally conscious is a serious fashion statement. And sometimes act responsibly toward Earth means making some concessions to style. Fortunately, this is not the case with the beautiful jewelry samples were received in exchange of this review. "> Sam & Goldie!

Sam & Goldie Jewelry is a line that blends the classic style of the quality and heritage honored with the international fashion style. These pieces are handmade from the highest quality semi-precious stones rescued, minerals and metals.

Sam Goldie also Jewels celebrates the splendor of cities throughout the world icon in the Collection of Buenos Aires, the collection of Florence and (my favorite!) From the Collection of Mykonos.

For me, the collection of Mykonos truly captures the taste of this paradise destination with raw and rough pieces of amethyst and citrine, Garnet chunks, and Geodes, even in all radiant purple, green and gold.

Agate slice necklace is created from gold-plated Chalcedony and reminds me of the church Paraportiani a of the most famous and instantly recognizable architectural structures on the island. Perfect for day or night, the necklace has a fancy 20 "chain and a pocket on strike. Retail $ 225

Amethyst and Citrine drop pendant is a spectacular addition to any holiday wardrobe. The group semi-precious stone hangs from a delicate 24 "sterling silver chain. This beautifully captures light dancing all night or Super Paradise Paranga. Retail $ 147

But my favorite of all is the Smokey Quartz and citrine drop. This is a limited edition and available online only. A total of 4 " semi-precious stones are highlighted with a gold plating on a 20 "chain link style. Great for a day exploring the Aegean Maritime Museum or go shopping. Sale retail $ 317

To see the entire collection of Mykonos or other treasures that visit Sam & Goldie. Shop conveniently online or find a store near you.

- Susan

About the Author

http://blog.whimsyworldwide.com

How much is this piece of amethyst?

its so long around here ................ I here its only tooo i know its not real has some rough spots

$ 4.63 Seriously, there is no way to know, especially without even a photo. You should try to publish a picture of him, but even then there would be a reasonable estimate.

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Amethyst Rough Arrowheads Pendant Small Size (Bulk Sale 5 Pcs)


Amethyst Rough Arrowheads Pendant Small Size (Bulk Sale 5 Pcs)


$6.50


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Rough Amethyst, White & Gold Marble Geometric Shapes Pattern Hard Plastic Phone Case For iPhone 7 Plus


Rough Amethyst, White & Gold Marble Geometric Shapes Pattern Hard Plastic Phone Case For iPhone 7 Plus


$6.99


Hard plastic material phone case, made to protect your device's sides and back. Phone case has soft matte finish, which makes your phone look unique and stylish. Snap on type lets you put it on the phone very easilly. Top and bottom of the case are left open to let you easilly reach all ports and buttons. Make your phone looks stylish and unique with our cases....

Rough Onyx Marble Stone Print Samsung Galaxy Note 5 Plastic Phone Protective Case Cover


Rough Onyx Marble Stone Print Samsung Galaxy Note 5 Plastic Phone Protective Case Cover


$5.99


Newly opened market GISMI is ready to sell and assist you in choosing design for mobile phone case. We are selling all kind of phone case designs, from animals to marble. Phone cases are made of hard plastic material , which has matte surface and is really scratch resistant. Case easilly snaps on your device, providing secure fit. Top and bottom are open, for easy reach of ports and buttons....

Rough Agate Marble Stone Print Apple iPhone 7 Plastic Phone Protective Case Cover


Rough Agate Marble Stone Print Apple iPhone 7 Plastic Phone Protective Case Cover


$5.99


Newly opened market GISMI is ready to sell and assist you in choosing design for mobile phone case. We are selling all kind of phone case designs, from animals to marble. Phone cases are made of hard plastic material , which has matte surface and is really scratch resistant. Case easilly snaps on your device, providing secure fit. Top and bottom are open, for easy reach of ports and buttons....

Genuine or Imitation Pearls? How to Tell Them Apart

Pearls come in many shapes and sizes whether they are real or not, and it’s not always easy to tell the difference between those that are genuine and those that are imitations. Even amongst genuine pearls there are many different classes of both natural and cultured varieties, all with their own different properties and all valued very differently as pearl jewellery. Before buying any pearls it’s important that you know what you’re getting, so here are a few ways to help differentiate between a genuine pearl and a fake:

The Tooth Test
Many people say that by rubbing a pearl against your teeth you can tell whether it’s real or fake by the feel of its surface. Genuine pearls usually have a rougher, more irregular texture whereas fakes are glassy and perfectly smooth. In reality this test is far from foolproof, as many fake pearls are created to feel as real as possible and cultured pearls in particular can often be very smooth, especially if they are dyed.

The Sun Test
A slightly more reliable method is to take the pearls out in the sun and take a close look at the appearance of the lustre, or shine, that you see on the surface. Unless they are extremely rare and expensive, real pearls hardly ever appear perfectly matched in full daylight and have clear differences in shine, iridescence and colour.

Surface Magnification
Don’t underestimate the power of a magnifying glass – a closeup look at the pearl earrings, necklace or brooch can tell you a lot, and is one of the most effective ways of distinguishing between genuine and fake pearls. The surface of a real pearl is crossed with hundreds of tiny almost invisible crooked lines, making it look almost scaly when placed under the microscope. Whilst there you could also take a look at the small drill holes at either end of the pearl, which are normally as small as possible in a real pearl as larger holes devalue the gem. Real pearls usually have holes drilled from either end, so the hole is much smaller in the middle of the pearl.

Shape
One of the most obvious ways to identify real pearl sets is to look closely at the shape of each pearl and whether or not they are close to being identical – real pearls are hardly ever perfectly round, and it is almost unheard of to find a whole string of pearls of exactly the same size, shape and weight. Those which are will be very expensive, or they are more than likely imitations.

X-Ray
The best way to be absolutely positive of a pearl's authenticiety is to have it verified and certified by a qualified gemologist. For a fee they will be able to x-ray the pearls, allowing you to see inside to any imperfections or variations in density and identifying the nucleus to determine how the pearl was originally formed. You need to be pretty certain that the pearl is real before paying the price for a validation, but some fakes can be very convincing and it’s the only way to really be 100% sure without damaging the pearl.

We hope you found the Rough Amethyst you were searching or today. We show a large range of gemstones such as Rough Amethyst and other rough gemstones. Everyday we search the internet to locate the best deals for Rough Amethyst and other gems using our special web portals. If you can"t find the stones you were searching for today, check out our other llinks on the right hand side or use the search box. Thank you for visiting gemstone store.


Rough Smoky Quartz

Great deals on Rough Smoky Quartz and other uncut stones. See our specially selected offers below to find the best buys for your Rough Smoky Quartz online today.


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« Previous1234

Interesting Video About Rough Smoky Quartz


Smokey Quartz Pocket Found in South Carolina Pt.1

Rough Smoky Quartz

Sales Top 5 Cross Pendants

In this festive period to enjoy the festive spirit reasonable cross pendants, contemporary and create a statement keeping the faith and fashion in the light of faith. In fact, cross necklaces are a picture of the faith throughout the world. There are several styles and colors in the market, diamond, gold, silver and stone nails.

Regardless of geographical location, for Catholics throughout the sports world cross pendants are custom. For your reference, we tend to provide you with the fine print of First 5 cross pendants. These pendants are made with 14k white gold. gold cross pendants are a perfect offer for your family or friends who have great faith in the religion they go.

1. 14 k white gold diamond cross of Malta: Malta Cross is the symbol fighting fire. This embraces a timeless splendor with the flavor of the earlier devices, with shiny finish and milegrain beads. Adorned with diamonds weighing 0.21 carat weight complete. The Cross of Malta was given to the original home fighters (Knights of St. John) as a reward for saving value of fire Saracens colleagues.

2. fourteen palo k gold cross pendant: This is often the most basic designs of the period, its beauty lies in simplicity of style and creativity. The bid value is $ 49.ninety five more or less than seventy%, but the first price.

3. fourteen-carat gold crucifix: This is often fantastically designed crucifix gold with diamond studded Christ embedded in it. Have a look terribly elegant and stylish for him and can be used in games at night. The value of diamonds the backdrop of yellow gold makes it a very interesting purchase.

4. Cable of 14 karat gold cross: The sweetness of this style can be a simple gold cross style tied with gold wire gives it a particular attraction. No use is allowed by creating a robust style casual statement, keeping the rules and religion intact.

5. 14 karat white gold marquise gemstones: This is often a very terrible piece set with white gold setting with beautiful marquise cut gemstones in the model cross. This is often a piece very carefully what could be a precious item of jewelry for any woman.

Some other items recommended in the same league are:
gemstones gold in the classical model of fourteen with k gold topaz embedded, crystal, garnet, Amethyst, Peridot and quartz smoking.

The cross as an image comprising a hugely significant and hidden message of religion, trust and hope. Although as a style of jewelry losses while essentially true, however, if you use it for secular faith or not as a statement of style, someone kept as a cherished item of jewelry or as a blessing of Christ, personally remains a powerful symbol and terribly for centuries to return can be known by humanity as a symbol of hope beauty, strength and God. Cross pendant is a gift that anyone purchasing or you can see in his life.

Asked all the possible ways to select the best gold pendants and diamonds for their loved ones, lots of spare time surfing the Internet with large fonts web sites goody, looking centers trade could be a little further though search to be updated with the latest trends and fashions in spiritual pendants.

About the Author

Lets have a quick recap:

Top 5 Best Selling Cross Pendants in Gold Religious Jewelry

14 k white gold diamond Maltese cross

14 k gold stick cross pendant

14 carat gold crucifix

14 carat gold catholic pendants
are the favourites in cross pendants.
Visit Catholic Cross Pendant for latest designs and styl

Question about a geode rock I bought?

Hey guys,

I bought a sliced geode rock about the size of a baseball from a store when I went on vacation. It has transparent/white quartz crystals on the inside of a dark grey and rough textured spherical rock which I'm pretty sure it is limestone.

I'm probably paranoid, but is there a chance that this rock could be slightly radioactive? It is from a mountain after all. I never bought anything like this before, so it just hit me after I bought it and I thought it could contain trace about of radioactive isotopes (uranium, thorium...etc). Anyways even if it did emit some kind of radioactive emission (alpha, beta or gamma) it would be in low amounts right?

Thanks!

From your description it sounds like the geode could be from the mid-western part of the United States. I have seen what you have described from Indiana, Illinois and Iowa. The light gray outside is a soft lime rich shale.

It most likely (99.999% sure) there is nothing to worry about. If there were some radioactive material in the geode it would have clouded the quartz crystals to make them smoky quartz. Your description of the quartz indicated that has not happened. You would only have to worry if the geode has some actual uranium minerals, which I have never heard of in that type of geode.

If you are still worried you could take it to a local college, most have geiger counters (or something similar) they use in their physics labs. They are very sensitive and would put your mind at ease.

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22k Yellow Gold Vermeil Rose Quartz And Smoky Quartz Gemstone Bangle


22k Yellow Gold Vermeil Rose Quartz And Smoky Quartz Gemstone Bangle


$48.00


Handmade Bangle - Rose Quartz Bangle - Gold Vermeil Bangle - Smoky Quartz Bangle - Raw Stone Bangle - Stackable Bangle - Women Bangles Product Details Item Code: AJRBB-993-C Gross Wt. 17.00 Gms Stone Name: Rose Quartz, Smoky Quartz Metal: Yellow Gold Plated Over Brass Bracelet Inner diameter : 2.50" Inch - Adjustable...

Ana Silver Co Rough Smoky Quartz 925 Sterling Silver Ring Size 7.75 RING820501


Ana Silver Co Rough Smoky Quartz 925 Sterling Silver Ring Size 7.75 RING820501


$25.99


Talented artisans at Ana Silver Co. masterfully handcrafts each piece of jewelry you see here. Our pieces are made with solid 925 sterling silver and genuine gemstones. The one-of-a-kind piece you see here is the same exact piece you will receive.Some gemstones we use in our jewelry are Coated, Dyed, Heat treated or Irradiated.Aquamarine is Heat treatedBlue Topaz is IrradiatedBlue, Green, Orange P...

Ana Silver Co Rough Smoky Quartz 925 Sterling Silver Pendant 1 1/2 PD603522


Ana Silver Co Rough Smoky Quartz 925 Sterling Silver Pendant 1 1/2 PD603522


$21.99


Talented artisans at Ana Silver Co. masterfully handcrafts each piece of jewelry you see here. Our pieces are made with solid 925 sterling silver and genuine gemstones. The one-of-a-kind piece you see here is the same exact piece you will receive.Some gemstones we use in our jewelry are Coated, Dyed, Heat treated or Irradiated.Aquamarine is Heat treatedBlue Topaz is IrradiatedBlue, Green, Orange P...

We hope you found the Rough Smoky Quartz you were searching or today. We show a large range of gemstones such as Rough Smoky Quartz and other rough gemstones. Everyday we search the internet to locate the best deals for Rough Smoky Quartz and other gems using our special web portals. If you can"t find the stones you were searching for today, check out our other llinks on the right hand side or use the search box. Thank you for visiting gemstone store.