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Set off our decorative ceramic tile in its own stylish stained wooden frame -- the perfect way to complete a decorative gift or keepsake. Rounded edges and quality construction make this Framed Tile the ultimate wall accent. Frame measures 6" X 6" x 0.5" with 4.25" X 4.25" tile. Constructed of stained Cherrywood. Two holes for wall mounting. IMPORTED. We offer 100% money back guarantee, so you can...
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This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. that were either part of the original artifact, or were introduced by the scanning process. We believe this work is culturally important, an...
This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around ...
Fishes have a unique evolutionary history that stretches back in time more than 450 million years. They are incredibly ancient-older than the dinosaurs-and include the ancestors of all limbed vertebrates living on land, even humans.In Discovering Fossil Fishes, John Maisey traces the evolution of fishes over the course of nearly half a billion years, describing the discovery of their extraordinary...
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The geologic column is very important to evolution but ...?
quoting Jonathan A. Drake in TrueAuthority.com " According to evolutionary teaching, the "Geologic Column" is a map of evolutionary history. Supposedly all fossils fit into a specific order, simple to complex. However, some flaws are to be found. Recently, fish scales were found in the "Cambrian layer" when according to the "column", fish did not appear until much later. All over the world can be found layer-transversing fossils. A typical specimen is a tree running vertical through thousands of layers. Possible explanation: Those layers weren't laid down over billions of years, unless ancient trees had the capability to grow through solid rock, void of all sunlight. Lest the reader even consider such a wild notion, or one like it, some of these trees are found up-side-down. Indeed, they spell nothing but sudden catastrophe.
How does that fit in evolution?
Jonathan A. Drake is a well-known liar and TrueAuthority.com promotes misinformation, anti-science, and out right lies while still trying to appear scientific. Of course they fail miserably but they still get a large number of young visitors who lack enough science background to know when their being played as suckers.
Anyone interested in discovering what we really know avoids sites like TrueAuthority.com like the plague.
Concerning the "a tree running vertical through thousands of layers," this is a standard creationist canard (one of Hovind's foolish favorites) often seen and often debunked, yet continually misunderstood by those naive enough to believe that centuries of research in geology, biology, astronomy, physics, and chemistry didn't solved this ridiculous notion long ago.
An irresistible journey of discovery, science, history, and myth making, told through the lives and afterlives of seven famous human ancestorsOver the last century, the search for human ancestors has spanned four continents and resulted in the discovery of hundreds of fossils. While most of these discoveries live quietly in museum collections, there are a few that have become world-renowned celebr...
Travel through the past and explore genuine fossils!This Ultimate Fossil Science Kit from Discover with Dr. Cool teaches your child how to become a paleontologist. Using the included adventure guide, they will learn about fossils, paleontology, and archeology. Dive into the activity booklet next for tons of extra fun and learning!This Ultimate Fossil Kit includes:• 15 ancient fossils which typic...
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The Gems and Minerals of the Bible Collection is the eighth in a series of rock, gemstone, fossil, and mineral sets from Fantasia Mining. This set you are ordering comes in a 4.5" x 3.5" clear plastic collectors box and contains 15 different types of natural rough gemstone specimens as described in the Bible. Each individual specimen measures around 1/2" to 3/4" and is attached to the included ide...
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How do 18 versions of the Bible translate the word: Strange women-1?
This is the eleventh article of the series: "Women of Abroad in the Bible against the Quran "
In previous articles, we have seen that from the point of view of language, the "foreign" women is foreign or exotic or alien women. However, the Bible has another idea.
As confirmed by the Bible, the "foreign" woman is not Jewish Women or non-Jewish woman.
As a result, any non-Jewish or non-Jewish woman is a "foreign" woman.
This indicates that women in the Bible are only one of two categories, but are either legitimate (true) or overseas (foreign).
In this article, we will analyze and discuss the translation of one verse that speaks of the "strange woman" in 18 different versions of the Bible. Although this issue be a bit of patience and vigilance, however, that deserves further study to show how enormously the translators of some Bible versions did their work in reference to Scripture Hebrew.
Very simply, the verse 1 Kings 11:1 says, "and King Solomon loved many foreign women along with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites Sidon, and the Hittites. "
It is a very clear and simple statement which needs only one who knows Hebrew and English to translate it as it is.
However, the intelligent reader will see here what the translators of 18 Bible versions have been made to translate this verse, 1 Kings 11:1.
Contemporary English Version translates 1 Kings 11 as follows:
"The Lord did not want the Israelites to worship foreign gods, so they had been warned not to marry someone who was not of Israel. Solomon loved his wife, daughter the king of Egypt. But he also said that some women of Moab, Ammon and Edom, Sidon and other land of the Hittites. "
The stresses the statement is not found in the original Hebrew Scriptures (Tanakh = the Hebrew Bible).
In addition, 17 other versions given in the Bible article does not say that.
This sentence is not more than the opinions of scholars who translated Contemporary English Version.
This is an example for show that the scholars who translated the Bible sometimes put their opinions as if the word of God. As a matter of fact, there are hundreds of examples like that throughout the Bible.
In addition, he said that this phrase is not the word of God can not harm the Jewish woman. This means that if a man marry any women Israel is not going to worship foreign gods? In other words, not all women unfaithful Israelites?
Some versions put the following titles as headers by the passage beginning with 1 Kings 11:01: "Solomon Turns from God" or "Solomon's infidelity to God."
In addition, English Translates contemporary version "many foreign women" to "some women", not "weird."
Also the New Century Version translates the "daughter of Pharaoh" to the "daughter of the king of Egypt" in this document, scholars translate to Pharaoh king Egypt. While Pharaoh was the king of Egypt, however, translators must translate the word of God as he is.
In addition, the New Century Version translates "Many foreign women" to "many women who were not of Israel." Again, this is an interpretation of the scholars who translated the New Century version. Of course they are right, because the strange or foreign women were defined as women's Bible of Israel, but this is not the problem.
The point is that you have to be honest, if you translate the Word of God!
New Century Version says, "many women who were not of Israel", not use the word strange or foreign words that are in the 15 other versions given below in this article. In addition, New Century Version says: "Israel" while Israel is not mentioned in the original Hebrew verse.
In addition, the New International Version Reader's says. " Many women besides Pharaoh's daughter were in other lands "do not use the word strange (or foreign word) found in the other 15 versions. In addition, "Other countries" is not in the original Hebrew verse.
On the other hand, the message says that King Solomon was obsessed with women. Pharaoh's daughter was only the first of many foreign women he loved. I do not know why he says that Pharaoh's daughter was the first, although the original Hebrew verse does not say that, also the 17 other versions do not say that.
Compared to the King James Version King James Version New Century Version and 21 King James, is that "foreign women" in King James version became "foreign women" in New King James Version and 21-century King James version. In addition, Sidon Sidon changed.
However, when comparing the American Standard Version Bible with the Americas, is unchanged between the two versions, except the use of "with" instead of "with."
1) The Bible declares that King Solomon had a multi-company-Nations-Women Affairs. He loved and married many foreign women, an Egyptian Pharaoh's daughter, and women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidonie and the Hittites. Despite their wives were 700 or 1000, however, the Bible does not say that he married a Jewish woman.
2) The translators of the 18 versions of the Bible adds 1 Kings 11:01 verse seven words and phrases that are not God's word. I wonder how translators can put words or phrases as being the Word of God, have no fear of the Lord God?
3) This phenomenon of adding statements, phrases or words not the word of God is common in the Bible. Therefore, the Bible is not 100% the word of God.
4) The sentence added in Contemporary English Version the Bible is not God's word can not harm the Jewish woman. Means that if a man marry any women of Israel is not going to worship foreign gods? In other words, no women in Israel are infidels and take their husbands to worship foreign gods.
On this issue in the Qur'an:
1) It must be stressed that the Quran speaks of the wives of King Solomon.
2) In the translation of the Koran, no one dares to add a word that is not the Word of God.
3) In the Koran, anyone adds a word or phrase of Scripture and says that it is the Word of God, but dwell in the eternal fire in the afterlife.
4) The Quran is 100% of the total Word of the Lord, the Almighty Creator.
5) In the whole Koran, the term "strange woman" is not mentioned in it, all women are equal in their rights and responsibilities without regard to race, color, location, etc.
6) Last but not least, someone says or believes the Great Prophet King Solomon was sinful or infidel dwell in eternal hell in the afterlife. Do not mess with the Prophets of Allah.
Verse 1 Kings 11:1 in 18 different versions of the Bible
(1) The top two Reina-Valera translation and translation Young's Literal
But King Solomon loved many foreign women along with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidon and the Hittites:
Young's Literal Translation
And the king Solomon loved many foreign women and the daughter of Pharaoh, women of Moab, Ammon, Edom, Sidon, [and] of the Hittites
(2) The following 13 translations used by women foreign rather than foreign women
New International Version
King Solomon, however, loved many foreign women together with the daughter of Pharaoh, Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidon and the Hittites.
King Solomon was obsessed with women. Pharaoh's daughter was only the first of many foreign women he loved, Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidon, and Hittite.
But King Solomon [challenging] loved many foreign women - the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidon and the Hittites.
New Revised Standard
Now King Solomon loved many foreign women. Besides the daughter of Pharaoh, which married women from Moab, Ammon, Edom, Sidon, and among the Hittites.
But King Solomon loved many foreign women besides Pharaoh's daughter: women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidon, Hittites;
Holman Bible Christians
King Solomon loved many foreign women besides Pharaoh's daughter: women Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidonia, and the Hittite
New International Version - UK
King Solomon, however, loved many foreign women, besides the daughter of Pharaoh, Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidon and the Hittites.
Today's New International Version
King Solomon, not however, loved many foreign women besides Pharaoh's daughter, Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidon and the Hittites.
English Version Standard
1Now King Solomon loved many foreign women along with the daughter of Pharaoh, Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidon, and Hittite women,
21st Century King James Version
But King Solomon loved many foreign women along with the daughter of Pharaoh: women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites Sidon, and the Hittites,
Now King Solomon loved many foreign women along the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites Sidon, and the Hittites;
New International Version
Now King Solomon loved many foreign women along with the daughter of Pharaoh, Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidonia, and Hittite women,
New King James Version
But King Solomon loved many foreign women and the daughter of Pharaoh: women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites Sidon, and the Hittites,
(3) The following three translations used "many women", "some women" and "women" to translate "many strange women, besides the use of words or phrases added.
New Century Version
King Solomon loved many women who were not of Israel. He loved the daughter of the king of Egypt, and women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidon and the Hittites.
Reader's New International Version (NIV)
King Solomon loved many women besides Pharaoh daughter. They were in other lands. They were the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidon and the Hittites.
Contemporary English Version
"The Lord wanted the Israelites to worship foreign gods, so they had warned her not to marry someone who was not of Israel. Solomon loved his wife, the daughter of the king of Egypt. But I also loved some women of Moab, Ammon and Edom, Sidon and other land of the Hittites. "
About the Author
Professor Dr. Ibrahim Khalil, Prof. of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Head (ex-) of Clinical Microbiology and Infection Control Unit, Ain-Shams University. Cairo, Egypt President of the Egyptian Society of Inventors, Honorary President of SPIC-Egypt (The Society of Practitioners of Infection Control – Egypt), Co-Chief Editor of the Egyptian Journal of Lab. Medicine Member of the Egyptian union of Writers, Published 5 Books and some 60 Medical Articles, Supervisors for 79 PhD theses and111 Master Degree theses.
Can anyone help me with this geometric sequence?
Can anyone help me solve this please? An ammonite fossil is shaped a logarithmic spiral. Yolanda, now a paleontologist, measures distances ties # 2 and # 4 along a radial line from the center of the spiral. She believes that the distances are 6 inches and centimeters 13.5. The fossil is in poor condition and can not measure the distance from the center loop # 3. But it can be calculated. What is the distance in centimeters? Does not include units in your reply.
Let the distance from the center loop # 3 = x. Then 13.5 / X = x / 6 x ^ 2 = 13.5 * 6 = 81 x = 9
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The beautiful spiral shells of these long-extinct marine invertebrates are among the most sought after and recognizable of fossils, yet little has been published about ammonites outside of geological journals. Neale Monks and Philip Palmer look at the latest ideas on ammonite biology and ecology to present this detailed picture of a once diverse and widespread group of animals.The authors describe...
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Later, God rejected Saul as unfit to continue to rule the Israelites. Why was Saul's leadership condemned?
Solomon was 1 of the a lot of kings who ruled Israel right after Saul. He had a extended and peaceful reign over Israel. His son Rehoboam succeeded him as king. But shortly following his accession to the throne, the United Kingdom was divided into two and he lost the higher component of the kingdom. What produced the United Kingdom divide and disintegrate beneath king Rehoboam?
God raised up judges from time to time to deliver his individuals from oppression and rule over them. Samson was one of those judges that God raised. The Israelites, whom Samson was raised to deliver on various occasions attempted to hand him over to their oppressors. What happened to this fantastic man that God raised as a deliver?
The earth began lengthy ago but its age has been a cause of fantastic controversy. If the earth was young evolution, the gap theory, and theistic evolution could be confirmed wrong. On the other hand if the earth was old, creation as well as the Bible could be false. Though evolutionists think that the earth evolved about 4.5 to five billion years ago, (Taylor), numerous creationists argue that the earth was developed about 6 to 12 thousand years ago according to Biblical records.
For a woman to rule a nation like Israel, she need to certainly have some excellent qualities. Therefore one can not be wrong in saying Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah, who also ruled Israel, had excellent qualities. However, in the seventh year of her reign the folks conspired against her and put her to death by the sword. What was incorrect with her leadership that caused her subject to have acted in this way?
Using this evidence, creationists have challenged a number of the strongest points for evolution. Using those statistics, the oceans would be clogged with mud and sediment if they were that old, but really little sediment rests on the bottom of the ocean (Humphreys 2). “Old earthers claim that the continents are over 2.5 billion years old, yet, making use of their own assumptions, the continents will need to have eroded away in 10 million years” (Walker “Eroding Ages”). This suggests a young earth. In spite of the evidence, evolutionists say erosion rates were less before humans came to earth. However, erosion rates have been calculated to have increased only 2.5 instances had humans not been on earth from the beginning. Another way evolutionists try to counter the attack is that they say the mountains are continually uplifted. Still, evolutionists think that the mountains are millions of years old, but if they were replaced by continental uplift, they could not be that old.
The four leaders mentioned failed in their leadership roles. For this cause their leadership has been characterized as bad. However, is it since 1 fails in leadership that one's leadership is bad? Failure is an indication that there are actually certain characteristics of one's leadership that aren't good. This will probably be completed beneath the following headings: (a) A reflection on the leadership of 5 leaders in Bible instances ( b) Basic characteristics of their leadership (c) An evaluation of their leadership.
Another region of evidence evolutionists use for an old earth will be the fossil record. Evolutionists think fossils are millions of years old. Creationists, however, have discovered evidence that counters the age of fossils. An example is those brought up by a mudflow in Wootton Bassett, England. The mudflow bubbles continuously and occasionally brings up fossils. One of the fossils identified was an ammonite, a prehistoric seashell which evolutionists think was from the Jurassic time period. The ammonite was really well preserved, with many of the ligaments intact. Evolutionists think the fossil was 165 million years old, but if so it wouldn't be so nicely preserved. Upon seeing the Ammonite, Dr. Hollingworth, an evolutionist, said “There are the shells of bivalves which still have their original organic ligaments and but they are millions of years old!” (Snelling “A 165 Million Year Surprise”).
A reflection on the leadership of 5 leaders in Bible times
This section is a reflection on the leadership of five leaders whose leadership has been characterized as bad. As mentioned within the introduction every of these leaders have experienced failures in their leadership. This reflection will be the 1st step in answering the question posed above.
Coal is an additional rock that evolutionists think to have taken millions of years to form, but creationists have discovered evidence providing proof that coal forms in a short time. An extremely massive brown coal deposit rests in a basin, the Latrobe Valley, offshore of Southeast Australia. Evolutionists think the coal formed from vegetation that accumulated as peat which sank and formed into coal over millions of years. But most creationists think a worldwide flood deposited the brown coal. Rootless clay was discovered underneath the coal, but if the coal formed over millions of years, there must be soil underneath the coal. Also ash layers exist inside the coal. If plants had grown in a swamp and accumulated, no ash layers could be present. Another trouble using the evolutionists’ theory is that the plant fossils discovered inside the coal only develop on mountains and do not match the species of any growing inside the surrounding area. However, the exact same form of vegetation is identified on aspect of New Guinea, New Zealand, New Caledonians, and mountains in Australia.
Saul was the initial king of Israel. Saul is chosen by divine guidance. He is a man of humility, consecrated by holy oil and filled with the spiurit.1 It can't be denied that Saul was prepared for leadership by the assurance of divine assistance and the special dualities that God gave him as a person. As Joyce Peel rightly pointed out, at the extremely starting of his reign Saul proved his capacity to lead as he rescued the city of Jabesh from the control of Nahash the Ammonite. The victory over the Ammonites gave Saul acceptance among all the people.
Without disagreeing with Joyce Peel that Saul had excellent qualities for leadership and was prepared for leadership by the assurance of divine support, Ted Engstrom stated that Saul lacked most of the fine qualities one expects in leadership.2 To substantiate his point, he produced reference to an account in second Samuel Chapter five. In their appeal to David, Engstrom observed that they stated David was the genuine energy in Saul's government and Saul was only a figurehead. It was David who led Israel out to battle and won victories for the nation. In addition, Engstrom pointed out that the nation that Saul left behind was torn by civil wars.3
In may be accurate that Saul lacked most of the fine qualities one expects in leadership, but the qualities that he had had been good adequate for him to succeed. According to William J Dumbrell, there had been 3 primary locations of failures in Saul's leadership. Saul went along and offered the sacrifice though he was not a Levite. The second was, as Dumbrell puts it, his food taboo and his proposed death of Jonathan. Jonathan had eaten some wild honey not knowing that Saul had pronounced a self-determined religious fast, enforced having a curse, until the pursuit of their enemies was over. In addition, Saul's victorious army was so hungry once they returned that they slaughtered and ate the animals without having cooking the meet. In this circumstance Saul surely lost control of his followers. The third failure was when he failed to carry out God's instructions concerning the Amalekites. He was supposed to destroy them and their animals completely, but he spared the king along with the best of the animals.4
Saul's failure will will need to nevertheless be noticed in its wider context. Samuel was to provide divine guidance to Saul for him to succeed.
In a portion of Yellowstone on the side of a hill, upright petrified trees can be found. More trees inside the side of the hill have not been exposed by erosion yet. The trees are on diverse levels, and evolutionists assume every single level represents a forest.
One can assume that as 1 of the king's sons he would have been very a lot interested within the kingship. As the king's son he would also have been groomed for leadership, specially when one deemed the reality that under usual circumstances one of the king's sons had to succeed him. He therefore had potentials that qualify him to lead. William J Dumbrell observed, that Jeroboam, the one time forced labor supervisor inside the north, capitalizes upon the ineptness of Solomon's son Rehoboam and leads the northern ten tribes into succession as the kingdom of Israel.5 Dumbrell's argument was that if Rehoboam had been adequately ready for leadership he wouldn't have acted the way he did on that distinct occasion. One can acquire far more insight from the observation of Joyce Peel that Rehoboam was not adequately prepared for leadership. She affirms that Rehoboam, like Absalom, is arrogant. Brought up in Solomon's palace, he sees royalty in terms of privilege and absolute power. He ignores the advise of older counselors, and encouraged by his arrogant men he returned a harsh answer.6 It is often observed from what Joyce peel said, that the dilemma of Rehoboam's unpreparedness for leadership was essentially his. King Rehoboam failed in maintaining the United Kingdom left by his father. Although the division of the kingdom had already been prophesied, Rehoboam's action need to not be overlooked. His failure, 1 have to observe, resulted not merely in a political division of the nation, but also inside the apostasy of the northern tribes.
Evolutionists believe the petrified trees had been once forests that died and petrified, and another forest grew over the old one. This approach repeated itself and took about 40,000 years for the entire formation to form. Creationists have discovered quite a few troubles with the forest over forest theory. Next, most of the trees do not have any bark or branches. Another problem is that a number of the trees stick up into the next layer. The final dilemma is that when trees all grow within the same area at the identical time they all have a similar ring pattern. Since the petrified trees at Yellowstone all have a similar ring pattern, it suggests that they all grew within the similar area at the identical time (Snelling “Rapid Rock”).
Samson was 1 of the judges raised to rule Israel prior to the commence of the monarchy. Even before he was born, God began to make preparations for him as a chosen leader. Samson grew as much as be a Nazarite, sworn never to drink or cut his hair. The secret of his phenomenal strength lay in keeping this vow. It should be observed that Samson's preparation as a spiritual leader was of extreme importance to God. One need to take into consideration that it was simply because of the apostasy of the nation that they had been experiencing suppression by their enemies. The enemies in the course of Samson's time had been the philistines, who had been controlling most of the land and they had exclusive possession of iron weapons. Maybe for that reason God raised Samson to be exceptionally powerful to confront them even with out a weapon.
When Samson assumed his leadership role, Joyce Peel described the sort of person he turned out to be: "But Samson was lustful, self-willed and irresponsible. The 1st one who got the secret of his riddle from him and also the second, Delilah, who got the secret of his strength.
On some occasions they tried to hand him over to their enemies for the cause that they saw him as the cause for greater suppression. His eyes were gouged out and he was brought down to Gaza, the scene of one of his earlier feasts of strength (16:1-3) and put to work at the tedious task of grinding out corn."8 Samson's life, which promised so much, taking into consideration the particular abilities God gave him, was blighted and ultimately destroyed by his sensual passions and lack of accurate separation to the Lord.
Many creationists think a catastrophe place the trees there. They have observed some really convincing and current evidence to assistance their theory. When Mt. The thousands of trees with few remaining roots that had been floating within the lake began to soak up water like they were created to. As a result, the root end became heavier than the rest of the log and flipped the log upright. As the log became waterlogged it sank. “Debris from the floating log mat as well as a continuing influx of sediment from the land buried the logs, still in an upright position” (Sarfat 18-21). Because some logs sink quicker than others, it developed layers. Several creationist scuba divers dove into Spirit Lake in 1985 and discovered about 15,000 upright logs stuck inside the mud at the bottom of the lake. In several years the logs will petrify and they will produce a standing petrified forest, just like Yellowstone.
Perhaps the controversy is all based on dating methods. Before evolutionists date a rock they will need to have to assume radioactive material is present in the rock. St. Helens recent eruptions (1980-1986). Using the Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) sort of radioactive dating, evolutionists sent the samples back to the creationists with dates of up to 2.8 million years (Swenson 23-25). In Sicily, Mt. Etna received a .35 million-year date for a 1972 flow plus a .7 million years date for a 1964 flow. Another volcano in California referred to as Mt. Kilauea was given a date of 8.5 million years for a flow that was only made in 1959. Mt. In New Zealand some tests had been run on 5 of Mt. Ngauruhoe flows. All of the lava flows had been created in the final fifty years. Creationists sent the samples to Geochron Laboratories in Cambridge, Boston; the manager has a Ph. The oldest date given to one of the samples was 3.5 million years old. Since the tests done on volcano samples have been proven false, the radioisotope dating strategy isn't reliable and it can not prove evolution (Snelling “Radioactive ‘Dating’ Failure”).
While evolutionists think the earth is billions of years old, young earth creationists think the earth is only thousands of years old. Much evidence proves evolutionists’ old age theory is wrong and creationists’ young earth theory is right. There is no doubt that creation has been verified accurate over and over. If persons still remain in doubt they need to appear closely at the evidence. There is significantly to assistance a young earth, as the Bible describes.
Humphreys, Dr. Russel. ([http://www.christiananswers.net/q-aig/aig-co12.html]); (14 Jan. 2003)
The final of the 4 leaders to be discussed is Attaliah, the mother of Azariah. As already been pointed out, she ruled Israel for six years. The fact that this lady was in a position to sit on the throne for six years, show that she had leadership abilities. This is on the other hand not to justify the way she employed her abilities.
On the seventh year of her reign, the biblical records show that she was overthrown and killed by the rather individuals she was ruling. In just retribution for her blasphemies and murders, she was maneuvered away from God's home which her sons had ransacked (2Chronicles 24:7) and was slain near the palace.10 This shows that the individuals she was ruling in no way accepted her leadership. She had managed to make use of force and her position as queen mother to stay in power.
Basic characteristics of the leaders and their leaderships
Having briefly reflected on the four leaders and their leadership, it'll now be suitable to talk about the basic characteristics of their leadership. This will be accomplished under three sub-headings: a) The leader as a person; b) His or her leadership; c) The followers.
This is mainly because leadership involves a relationship in between these three elements.
a. The Leaders
According to Bob Gordon and David Fardouly, numerous persons fail in leadership mainly because they did not obtain a divine call to leadership. A call from God comes with an inner recognition that the individual will likely be equipped for the task. They said with out God, nobody could be sufficiently equipped to accomplish any job in God's kingdom. Was it due to the fact they operated in their own strength? Gordon and Fardouly's point is that one of the factors why leaders fail is because they operate in their own strength, which in some cases, could be an indication that they have not been called. In other cases, they may have been known as but have turned away from God's authority and support. Therefore, from what Gordon and Fardouly have said, one of the characteristics of poor leadership is observed within the conduct or character of the leaders who don't recognize their inadequacy and try to complete every thing by their own strength.
b. Their leadership
In discussing the leadership of the four leaders, two primary things have been given primary importance. As John Haggai rightly observed, "a vision has a direct bearing on his leadership style.12 As a starting point, one could ask, what were the4 visions of these leaders? What was Saul's vision for Israel? A close examination of the observation of John Maxwell will aid 1 identify no matter whether Saul seriously have a vision. Maxwell observed that right after he tasted success in battle, he mistook his position as king for genuine leadership. He was produced a common but he in no way attracted a significant standing army. He developed no organized government to preserve his gains. As a result, his style of leadership was primarily noticed in his response to Israel's enemies. During those occasions he demonstrated far more of o dictatorial or authoritative type of leadership.
King Rehoboam on the other hand thought to be to have achieved his objective when he sat on the throne. It was clear from his reply that his vision was for the individuals to serve him and make him comfortable. Also, the caliber of the counselors he chose supported the truth that he had no vision for Israel. His vision might have been to sit on the throne till he retires or dies. As a result of his lack of vision, his style of leadership was additional of an authoritarian or dictatorial one.
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Hunting for megalodon teeth, Shark Teeth, fossils, and arrowheads in Summerville, SC
The Global Darwinist Dictatorship Must Apologize to the Entire World!
Darwinism is under official protection in 95% of the countries of the world. People are forced to believe this false theory imposed on them as an official ideology. Candidates in middle school, high school and university exams have to answer questions about the theory of evolution as if this false theory were true and factual. THE GLOBAL DARWINIST DICTATORSHIP MUST APOLOGIZE TO THE ENTIRE WORLD, • for presenting innumerable frauds to the scientific world for 150 years, • for imposing Darwinism as the official ideology, • for trying to keep Darwinism alive by means of official protection, • for putting pressure on and removing pro-Creation scientists from their posts, • for putting anti-democratic pressure on Creationists all over the world through the press and other means... The Global Darwinist dictatorship must apologize to the entire world; • For CONCEALING FOSSILS unearthed from below the ground, • For keeping 100 MILLION FOSSILS, that have remained unchanged for millions of years, hidden away from the public eye, • For never admitting they have NOT EVEN A SINGLE INTERMEDIATE FORM FOSSIL, • For concealing for years the fact that IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR PROTEINS TO FORM BY CHANCE, • For FABRICATING FAKE SKULLS and producing them as evidence of the imaginary evolution of man, • For portraying the Piltdown Man hoax, MADE BY ADDING AN ORANGUTAN JAW TO A HUMAN CRANIUM and filing down its teeth, as an intermediate form and for deceiving people by exhibiting it in a museum as alleged evidence of evolution for the next 40 years, • For inventing the hoax intermediate Nebraska Man FROM A SINGLE WILD PIG TOOTH, producing false reconstructions to give people the impression that such a being had ever existed, and deceiving them still further BY PRODUCING PICTURES OF THIS NON-EXISTENT ENTITY’S WHOLE FAMILY, • For the way they for years depicted Haeckel’s FORGED EMBRYO DRAWINGS, produced with the aim of proving the lie that human embryos possess gills, as evidence for evolution, • For the way they are still displaying THE SEQUENCE FOR THE EVOLUTION OF THE HORSE, WHICH EVEN THEY ADMIT TO BE FALSE, in museums, • For dishonestly depicting moths THEY GLUED ONTO TREE TRUNKS as “industrial revolution moths that had evolved by way of natural selection,” • For depicting the Coelacanth, WHICH STILL LIVES IN DEEP SEA WATERS TODAY, as an intermediate form, • For CONCEALING fossils of complex life forms dating back to the Cambrian Period FOR NO LESS THAN 70 YEARS, out of concern these would totally discredit evolution, • For ADDING FEATHERS TO FOSSIL DINOSAURS and trying to pass this off as an intermediate form when they were unable to find any genuine intermediate form fossils to prove Darwinism, • For persisting in the FRAUD THAT LIFE FORMS GRADUALLY EVOLVED FROM THE PRIMITIVE TO THE MORE ADVANCED, even though they know perfectly well that the first organisms with characteristics of a similar complexity to those of present-day life forms appeared suddenly and simultaneously in the Cambrian Period, some 530 million years ago, • For portraying mutation experiments as evidence for evolution, despite knowing full well that mutations do nothing but harm organisms, and for years reiterating THE LIE THAT MUTATIONS LEAD TO EVOLUTION, • And for so long teaching students in all schools and universities the deception that “chance causes evolution” AS A SCIENTIFIC FACT. In short, the Global Darwinist dictatorship MUST APOLOGIZE FOR DECEIVING THE WHOLE WORLD WITH THESE BLATANT UNTRUTHS FOR THE LAST 150 YEARS. Beside all these Darwinist falsehoods, there are many professors around the world removed from their posts, as dictated by Darwinist imposition, just because they espouse the fact of Creation. Most recently, Michael Reiss, director of education of the Royal Society, was swiftly removed from his post in the wake of his suggestionthat Creation also be taught in schools. PROFESSORS AND ACADEMIC STAFF WHO HAVE BEEN REMOVED FROM THEIR POSTS because they espouse Creationism SHOULD BE RESTORED TO OFFICE. STUDENTS WHO HAVE BEEN FORCED TO LEAVE SCHOOL AND END THEIR EDUCATION because they answered “I do not accept this claim” when asked about Darwinism in exams SHOULD BE RETURNED TO THEIR SCHOOLS. The fossil record is perhaps the most important evidence that demolishes the theory of evolution's claims. Fossils reveal that life forms on Earth have never undergone even the slightest change and have never developed into one another. Examining the fossil record, we see that living things are exactly the same today as they were hundreds of millions of years ago—in other words, that they never underwent evolution. Even during the most ancient periods, life forms emerged suddenly with all their complex structures–with the perfect and superior features, just as do their counterparts today. This demonstrates one indisputable fact: Living things did not come into being through the imaginary processes of evolution. All the living things that have ever existed on Earth were created by God. This fact of creation is once again revealed in the traces left behind them by flawless living things. This book will provide you with not only such information as what fossils are and where and how they are found, but also a closer examination of a variety of fossil specimens, millions of years old, that are still able to declare, "We never underwent evolution; we were created." The fossils discussed and illustrated in this book are just a few examples of the hundreds of millions of specimens that prove the fact of creation. And even these few are enough to prove that the theory of evolution is a major hoax and deception in the history of science. About the Author
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New Age Teething
It may perhaps seem like newborns have no teeth at all, but those pearly whites are already producing beneath the gums. Discount dental care early in life can support prevent oral illness later on, both by building great habits and by maintaining the top quality of their teeth.
Today, more than ever, mother and father are trying to find all-natural methods to care for their infants children as opposed to reaching for over the counter or prescription drugs.
For thousands of years, Baltic Amber has been recognized for its amazing healing properties and analgesic pain relief. Completely non toxic, normal amber also supports the immune system which is particularly important for infants and children when their young bodies are nonetheless in development. So how does amber present such outstanding relief? We're glad you asked that question!
They begin to erupt at six months, and generally the baby will have a full set of primary tooth by age 3. Parents can take many steps to ease the discomfort of their baby all through this time.
Over 45 million many years ago, an organic substance referred to as "fossil resin" was produced by special pine trees in a very significant forest in Northern Europe. When the temperatures inside forest went from cold to very much warmer, the trees exuded a "sap" or "resin" which grew to become portion of the earth around them. The therapeutic attributes of Baltic amber are attributed to its major ingredient, Succinic acid, that is mostly located inside the surface layer from the amber, and is an exceptionally effective therapeutic recovery agent. So how does amber achieve its role as the key normal solution to relieving teething pain in infants and toddlers?
In order for Baltic amber to carry out its analgesic function, amber artisans created amber teething jewelry that might be worn comfortably and safely against the child's skin. When the pores and skin warms the amber, it begins to exude its healing properties supplying not only discomfort relief but a calming effect. The relief will final for lengthy periods of time so it is possible to eliminate the necklace when your infant is sleeping or unattended. The necklaces fasten with a screw clasp and strung by hand with unique knots in between each and each amber bead so if the necklace should break, the rest of the beads will not scatter.
To sooth tender gums, parents can gently rub the gum line that has a clean finger or a cool, damp cloth. Many stores sell low cost teething rings for babies to chew on, some of which might be placed inside refrigerator or freezer and given towards the youngster to cool or numb the mouth. Some dentists recommend a topical gel to gently numb the area.
Children should not be exposed to toothpaste until they're about 2 decades old, due to the fact some ingredients might be harmful if swallowed. In the meantime, however, dad and mom may possibly wish to gently brush the baby's tooth having a soft-bristled toothbrush and some water.
Just like a conscientious parent have to take action, you will find also instances to leave things alone for the excellent of one's infant. For example, eruption cysts, watery sacs that develop when teething, are typically harmless. They'll eventually erupt as the tooth emerges from the gum line.
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The November edition of National Geographic magazine (NG) posed the question "Was Darwin Wrong?" on its front cover. Natural scientist David Quammen, author of the article by the same name, replied "No" to that question from his own perspective, and claimed that Darwin's theory of evolution was today backed up by powerful scientific evidence. Quammen repeated the main claims from Darwin's book The Origin of Species, but overlooked one important detail.
Darwin added another chapter to his book, one called "Difficulties on Theory," and openly admitted the existence of difficulties in these terms:
Such is the sum of the several chief objections and difficulties which may justly be urged against my theory… I have felt these difficulties far too heavily during many years to doubt their weight. 1
The fact is, however, that the NG article discussed not one of the phenomena that Darwin regarded as a problem for his theory, and even ignored their existence. For example, although Darwin referred in his book to the way the fossil record failed to back up his theory and to the complexity in the eye, NG magazine did not even touch on such subjects which the theory of evolution is unable to account for as the Cambrian Explosion, biological complexity and the origin of genetic information.
Quammen, who thus appears to be more of a Darwinist than Darwin himself, emerged as the defender not of a theory that can account for difficulties, but of a "dogma" that needs to be shielded from criticism.
In this article, Quammen's so-called evidence is analysed and the Darwinist propaganda embarked on by NG magazine refuted.
An Example of NG Turkey's Dogmatic Stance
The English language edition of the NG article "Was Darwin Wrong?" also devoted space to Harun Yahya's works about the theory of evolution. In the section describing worldwide reactions against evolution the following words appeared in reference to Harun Yahya:
Their discomfort is paralleled by Islamic creationists such as Harun Yahya, author of a recent volume titled The Evolution Deceit, who points to the six-day creation story in the Koran as literal truth and calls the theory of evolution "nothing but a deception imposed on us by the dominators of the world system."
Interestingly though, Harun Yahya did not appear in NG's Turkish version, and this section was altered, assuming the following form: "This unease displays a parallelism among those who support the Islamic idea of creation."
As someone who states his primary aim as being that of describing the philosophy and scientific invalidity of Darwinism, Harun Yahya has closely monitored Darwinist propaganda in recent years and has responded, in the light of scientific findings, to the pro-evolutionist writings and broadcasts of media organisations, of which NG is one. (see www.darwinism-watch.com)
If Darwinism really were supported by a mass of evidence, as claimed in this NG article, then why is NG Turkey trying to prevent Harun Yahya's scientific criticisms from being heard? Could it be that NG Turkey was concerned that Darwinism will be unable to withstand such scientific criticism? In fact, this attitude by NG's Turkey desk not only shows that the magazine is unwilling to inform its readers of the source of effective criticism of evolution, but also confirms the criticism that it is seeking to keep Darwinism on its feet as an ideology.
NG Is Unwilling to Face the Modern Scientific Facts
There can be no doubt that in order to provide a realistic response to the question "Was Darwin Wrong?" one needs to look at what Darwin actually said and to compare this to modern scientific facts. In his book The Origin of Species, in which he unveiled his theory of evolution, Darwin provided a very important criterion by which to test his theory. So concrete is that criterion that in Darwin's own words it could "absolutely break down" the theory. Darwin wrote:
"If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down." 2
Darwin maintained that organs evolved during a gradual process. Thinking of this imaginary process in reverse, it appears that Darwin assumed that these organs possessed reducibility. However, advances made in the field of biochemistry, especially over the last 40 years, have revealed that the cell possesses a superior complexity, the details of which were unknown in Darwin's time, for which reason it was equated to a "black box," and that certain structures within the cell actually possess the feature of "irreducible complexity."
"Irreducible complexity" is a phenomenon based on empirical evidence and literally constitutes the antithesis of Darwin's theory. The most important figure to bring this concept onto the agenda of the scientific world is the biochemist Michael J. Behe from Lehigh University in the USA. In his 1996 book Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution Behe examines the irreducibly complex natures of the cell and certain other biological structures, and reveals that these cannot possibly be accounted for in terms of evolution. Behe sets out the effect that irreducible complexity has on the claims of Darwinism thus:
"To Darwin, the cell was a 'black box' -- its inner workings were utterly mysterious to him. Now, the black box has been opened up and we know how it works. Applying Darwin's test to the ultra-complex world of molecular machinery and cellular systems that have been discovered over the past 40 years, we can say that Darwin's theory has 'absolutely broken down'." 3
Irreducible complexity has demolished Darwinism, and proved that life is the product of intelligent design, in other words that God has created all living things. The way that NG seeks to keep this from its readers constitutes a flight from reality.
NG's biogeographical tales
In his article in NG, Quammen begins his account of the so-called evidence for Darwinism with biogeography, and it may be of use to provide a description of this concept at this point. Biogeography is a branch of science that investigates the geographical distribution of species and seeks an answer to the question of how they came by these habitat regions by drawing up maps of their locations on the Earth.
Most books in the field of biogeography are full of facts that say nothing, neither in favour nor against, the theory of evolution: such as maps of living species' habitat areas, the features of those areas, questions regarding the spread of organisms, and the grouping together of species on the basis of geographical area ... 4
When their distribution on the Earth is examined it can be seen that species do not generally exhibit a global distribution. Species have rather spread in large groups in areas possessing specific climatic and environmental conditions. Ever since Darwin, evolutionists have sought to portray this spread as evidence for evolution, though with regard to the "fundamental" living categories of geographical distribution their efforts have failed to come up with a consistent evolutionary scenario.
In their book Systematics and Biogeography, G. Nelson and N. Platnick of the New York American Museum of Natural History analysed the studies performed in this field and set out their conclusion:
We conclude, therefore, that biogeography (or geographical distribution of organisms) has not been shown to be evidence for or against evolution in any sense. 5
If evolutionists really wish to offer evidence for their theory then what they need to do is to abandon their fairy tales about "if this living thing is found here then it must have evolved here, and if that living thing is found there then it must have evolved there," and instead scientifically document their own responses to the question of how living things came into being in the first place. (It is an indisputable fact that the mechanisms of random mutation and natural selection cannot account for the origin of species.)
The fact that evolutionist claims based on biogeography are myths devoid of any scientific evidence clearly emerge on inspection of NG's claims about palaeontology. The fossil record clearly reveals that the idea that living things spread by evolving is a myth.
NG's palaeontology deception
NG makes a generalisation about the fossil strata, telling its readers that so-called closely related species are generally found side by side in consecutive strata, and that a life form going back millions of years in one stratum is followed by a similar, though not identical, one in the subsequent stratum. As an example of this generalisation it cites the equine sequence that even evolutionists abandoned years ago; it maintains that the modern-day horse emerged at the end of the sequence Hyracotherium, Orohippus, Epihippus and Mohippus, fossils of which are found in consecutive strata.
What NG is doing here consists of a blatant deception. The equine sequence is an unfounded one, the invalidity of which has now been demonstrated. That being the case, putting it forward as a generalisation regarding the fossil record cannot be described as anything else than an attempt to verify that generalisation with a deceptive example.
Life forms emerged with no evolutionary progenitors, but in a single moment, and with flawless bodily structures
Darwin, who maintained that living things emerged through graduated evolution and who hoped that the fossil record to confirm that claim would be obtained in future excavations, was mistaken. The fossils obtained in endless excavations carried out by palaeontologists all over the world have produced findings that openly refute the idea of gradual change in consecutive strata. These facts concern the phenomena of sudden appearance and stasis.
Species emerge suddenly, with no evolutionary progenitors but with flawless bodily structures. In his 1999 book Fossils and Evolution, Tom Kemp, Curator of the Zoological Collections in Oxford University Museum of Natural History, admits this:
In virtually all cases a new taxon appears for the first time in the fossil record with most definitive features already present, and practically no known stem-group forms. 6
Fossils hundreds of millions of years old that bear no
trace of evolution invalidate neo-Darwinism
Furthermore, species exhibit no gradual change as suggested in the NG generalisation. Species with natural histories of hundreds of millions of years exhibit a "stability" demonstrating a permanency throughout geological strata. The shark, coelacanth, ant, salamander and many other species, fossils of which have been found and which have remained unchanged for hundreds of millions of years, have led to palaeontologists accepting stasis as one of the most striking aspects of the fossil record. This phenomenon refutes Darwinism's prediction of gradual change and invalidates the theory. Professor of Geology Peter J. Williamson describes this in Nature magazine:
The principal problem is morphological stasis. A theory is only as good as its predictions, and conventional neo-Darwinism, which claims to be a comprehensive explanation of evolutionary process, has failed to predict the widespread long-term morphological stasis now recognized as one of the most striking aspects of the fossil record. 7
In short, NG's claim of graduated change throughout geological strata is a myth supported in the face of the science of palaeontology. The way that NG seeks to support that myth with the equine sequence only makes matters worse.
The truth in the equine sequence that NG seeks to conceal from its readers
The equine sequence is based on various hoofed fossils unearthed in North America. Darwinists set these out in such a way as to establish a sequence, according to the fossils' dental characteristics and numbers of toes, and for years put this forward as evidence for Darwinism. Continuing palaeontological excavations, however, definitively revealed the inconsistencies within that series. NG, known for its blind devotion to Darwinism, has no qualms about concealing this development from its readers and writing that the alleged evolutionary ancestors of the horse follow one another in consecutive geological strata.
Former BBC science editor Gordon Rattray Taylor describes how the equine sequence constitutes no evidence for Darwinism:
But perhaps the most serious weakness of Darwinism is the failure of paleontologists to find convincing phylogenies or sequences of organisms demonstrating major evolutionary change... The horse is often cited as the only fully worked-out example. But the fact is that the line from Eohippus to Equus is very erratic. It is alleged to show a continual increase in size, but the truth is that some variants were smaller than Eohippus, not larger. Specimens from different sources can be brought together in a convincing-looking sequence, but there is no evidence that they were actually ranged in this order in time. 8
At a meeting in November 1980 at the Chicago Museum of Natural History, attended by 150 evolutionists, one speaker, Boyce Rensberger, stated that there was no basis in the fossil record for the scenario of equine evolution, and that no gradual equine evolution ever took place:
The popularly told example of horse evolution, suggesting a gradual sequence of changes from four-toed fox-sized creatures living nearly 50 million years ago to today's much larger one-toed horse, has long been known to be wrong. Instead of gradual change, fossils of each intermediate species appear fully distinct, persist unchanged, and then become extinct. Transitional forms are unknown. 9
Discoveries that living things included in the imaginary sequence of equine evolution actually lived at the same time, and even together, totally refute Quammen. One of the most striking examples of this came to light in 1981. Fossils of thousands of living things, 10 million years old, that had been buried under lava as the result of a volcanic eruption and whose skeletons had been preserved down to the present day, were dug up in the US state of Nebraska. With that discovery it emerged that three- and single-toed equines assumed to have lived at different periods and to have ancestral relationships with one another in the framework of evolutionists' imaginary equine sequence, actually lived side by side. Interestingly the source of this information is NG magazine. 10
The myth of whale evolution
I can see no difficulty in a race of bears being rendered, by natural selection, more and more aquatic in their structure and habits, with larger and larger mouths, till a creature was produced as monstrous as a whale. 11
From watching bears fishing along a river bank, Darwin set out his ideas on the origin of whales in these words in his book The Origin of Species, though he elected to remove that section from subsequent editions of the book. Yet evolutionists who came after Darwin had no hesitation over adopting this myth, with various minor amendments, that came down as a monument to the unrestricted nature of his imagination. They continued to propagate the myth that the whale evolved not from the bear but from other land mammals, as if this were a scientific fact.
It can now be seen that NG, one of the main representatives of Darwinian mythology, is behaving no differently, and is seeking to portray this great myth, supported for the sake of the dogma of evolution, as representing evidence for evolution.
There are enormous differences, in terms of such basic physiological characteristics as water conservation, sight and communication, between whales and the land mammals alleged to have been their progenitors. Let us now consider the scientific dilemma facing the myth of evolution by examining the design in whales:
The special water conservation design in whales' bodies
Although they live in water, whales are unable to meet their water requirements from salty sea water. They need fresh water to live. Although it is not known exactly how they meet their water needs, it is thought that a large part of it is obtained by eating sea creatures that contain levels of salt that are 30% lower than those of the ocean water.In such an environment, where fresh water is exceedingly scarce, the maximum conservation of water in living things' bodies and minimum consumption thereof are critical. Water levels are of great importance to whales, for which reason, just like camels, whales do not perspire. Their kidneys regulate urine concentration in such a way as to supply water.
Why is whale milk fatty?
Another delicate balance with regard to water needs appears in the fat level in the female whale's milk. The mother whale feeds her young with a very thick milk, of the consistency of cheese. This milk is ten times fattier than human milk. There is a chemical reason why this milk contains such a high level of fat. Water is produced as a side product as fat is processed after being consumed by the baby. In this way the mother meets her offspring's need for water with minimal water loss.
The design in whales' eyes
There are complex arrangements in the design of the whale eye and its communication systems, no examples of which are to be found in terrestrial mammals. Land mammals have eyelids to protect against dust and impact. Whales, on the other hand, have a hard layer to protect against a different danger, the pressure under the sea. Moreover, the refractive index in the design of the whale eye makes it possible for a killer whale to leap up and catch a fish six metres above the water level in an amusement park with considerable accuracy. In addition, whales' eyes are on either side of the head, unlike terrestrial mammals, thus protecting them from the current. Thanks to the levels of rod and cone cells in the eye, their sensitivity levels to light, colour and other details are very high. In addition to that ratio, the presence of phosphorus in the eyes is a design that facilitates their ability to see in the dark depths of the oceans.
The mathematical calculation employed by whales
The sense used by whales in the location of sources of food and of one another is not actually sight, but rather hearing. Many whales hunt at the dark regions at the bottom of the sea thanks to a form of natural "sonar." The whale's brain emits clicking sounds, in a way not yet fully understood by scientists. The distance of an object is determined by means of a mathematical calculation. The whale brain multiplies the speed at which the sounds it emits strike an object and bounce back by the time necessary for this, and divides the result by two. The result is the distance of the object from itself. Furthermore, the whale also possesses the ability to focus the sound waves with its brain on a specific point and to emit these like a light impulse. The returning waves are analysed and interpreted in the animal's brain. This interpretation determines the shape of the body in front of it, its size, speed and position. The animal's skull is sound-proofed to protect it from the bombardment of powerful sound waves it constantly emits and which could even seriously damage the brain itself. The sonic system in the animal is unbelievably sensitive, so much so that the US Navy imitates the sonar design in sea mammals in developing its own technology. 12
Special designs for whale calves
The perfect designs in whales are by no means limited to these. The shape of a whale calf's mouth has been designed in such a way as to be ideally suited to fit its mother's teats, so that the calf is able to suckle without losing a drop of milk and without taking in a drop of sea water. Moreover, they possess lungs capable of storing high levels of oxygen for protracted dives and an ear membrane designed to protect them from high pressure.
These arrangements, every one of which indicates an evident design, are particular to whales and are not to be found in any terrestrial mammal. NG, however, expects it readers to set reason aside and believe that these all came about by chance. NG denies that whales were intelligently designed, maintaining instead that one fine day a land mammal decided to live in the sea, and that the whale evolved as the result of unconscious mechanisms such as random mutations and natural selection.
Yet what mutation could possibly produce sonar in a mammal that was allegedly the progenitor of the whale? Bearing in mind the effect of mutations and the importance of the brain to the whale's survival, it is clear that mutations would damage the brain, crippling or killing the whale. Could the brain, that produces sound waves, be able to focus these on a particular point and determine the location of objects using a mathematical calculation, acquire a perfect sonar in an area that would be damaged during this random process? By what coincidence could it produce sonar of such a high quality that even the US Navy's technology development units have been unable to match it? What mutations could turn a land mammal's feet into fins and a tail capable of propelling several tons of weight?
There is no doubt that these questions may also be asked with regard to the systems that make it possible to use water so productively, the suckling system and the protective systems in the eye and ear. However, NG has no reasonable response to give to these questions. There is but one answer. Whales were created fully formed in a single moment. God created whales to be flawless, endowed with all the systems for their needs, just as He did all other living things. In one verse of the Qur'an it is revealed that:
Mankind! remember God's blessing to you. Is there any creator other than God providing for you from heaven and earth? There is no god but Him. So how have you been perverted? (Qur'an, 35: 3)
(For a more detailed reply to NG's fantastical whale story see http://www.harunyahya.com/70national_geographic_sci29.php)
NG's error regarding embryology
Another error in Quammen's article in NG is the repetition of a myth once known as the "law of recapitulation." This belonged to the German biologist Ernst Haeckel and in his claim regarding embryology Darwin was to a large extent "inspired" by Haeckel. The law of recapitulation maintains that the embryological development of living things repeats the imaginary stages undergone during the descent of the alleged evolutionary ancestors.
The fact that Quammen devotes space to this in his article reveals a wide gap of knowledge on his part. Objections along the lines that Haeckel's claims were devoid of any scientific justification and that the evidence he offered was forged began 136 years ago13, and the end of the law of recapitulation as the subject of scientific debate came as far back as 80 years ago 14. Even George Gaylord Simpson, one of the founders of neo-Darwinism, admitted this fact 42 years ago in the words:
Haeckel misstated the evolutionary principle involved. It is now firmly established that ontogeny does not repeat phylogeny. 15
Moreover, the myth of recapitulation, which NG has no qualms over recapitulating itself, involves what one British embryologist referred to in 1997 as "the best known fraud in the history of biology." In his book Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte (The History of Natural Creation), written in 1868, Haeckel deliberately distorted the pictures of human, monkey and dog embryos in such a way as to support his claim.
One striking aspect of this fraud is that it also constitutes a "centennial monument" to Darwinist dogmatism. Until recently, a number of Darwinist sources, including text books, continued either to use the counterfeit drawings as they were, or else to repeat the myth of recapitulation. The Harvard University professor and evolutionist Stephen Jay Gould displayed great common sense and offered the following criticism:
… [W]e do, I think, have the right to be both astonished and ashamed by the century of mindless recycling that has led to the persistence of these drawings in a large number, if not a majority, of modern textbooks! 16
NG has not used counterfeit drawings. Yet it has no hesitations over using recapitulation, the invalidity of which emerged at least 80 years ago, as support for Darwinism.
We urge NG to consider Stephen Jay Gould's words.
NG's errors with regard to morphology
Quammen exhibits a most thought-provoking attitude in that section in which he deals with Darwin's claims on the subject of morphology. The way that a zoo is organised into birds, monkeys, big cats, crocodiles or fish in the aquarium is interpreted as evidence for evolution. According to Quammen, the fact that living things can be classified under a hierarchical system in families, orders and kingdoms must be the product of an evolutionary process.
However, Quammen's portrayal of hierarchical classification as evidence for evolution is nonsensical. That is because the fact that forms of life can be classified hierarchically is not a prediction first put forward by evolutionists and then subsequently confirmed. The Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus, the father of the modern system of classification, was a scientist who believed in creation from nothing and regarded that classification as the product of intelligent design. That is compatible with what we see with our own eyes and is grounded in common sense. The ability to be hierarchically classified is a well known hallmark of intelligent design. Means of transport, for example, can be classified as land, air and sea vehicles, and may be broken down into subcategories and even smaller subgroups. Yet this classification does not show that the modes of transport in question came into being through evolution.
Indeed, in an article published in the magazine New Scientist, the prominent evolutionist Mark Ridley makes the following statement:
The simple fact that species can be classified hierarchically into genera, families, and so on, is not an argument for evolution. It is possible to classify any set of objects into a hierarchy whether their variation is evolutionary or not. 17
In the same way that what Quammen writes on this subject are far from supporting his claim, it also reveals how he relies on preconceptions rather than scientific evidence:
Such a pattern of tiered resemblances?groups of similar species nested within broader groupings, and all descending from a single source?isn't naturally present among other collections of items. You won't find anything equivalent if you try to categorize rocks, or musical instruments, or jewelry. Why not? Because rock types and styles of jewelry don't reflect unbroken descent from common ancestors. Biological diversity does. The number of shared characteristics between any one species and another indicates how recently those two species have diverged from a shared lineage. (p. 13)
Quammen placed the hierarchical categorisation in living things in a separate place, on the grounds that it reflects a continual chain of descent from a common ancestor. That term, however, is helpless labelling in Quammen's desperate attempts to prove Darwin right.
As is made clear above, there is no fossil record capable of being proposed as evidence of any evolutionary link between living categories. The words of the prominent evolutionary palaeontologist Stephen Jay Gould that "The evolutionary trees that adorn our textbooks have data only at the tips and nodes of their branches" are an admission of the fact that there is actually no evidence for the evolutionary links assumed to exist among living things. 18
In short, the origin of the evolutionary chain of descent that Quammen claims exists among living categories is not scientific fact such as the fossil record, but rather his own dogmatic mentality.
The five-digit skeletal structure error
Quammen maintains that the way that various vertebrates such as the bat, the dolphin and human beings all share the feature of having five digits stems from descent from a common ancestor. This claim rests on the fact that although there is the same basic plan in the front and rear legs of the living things in question, these can still be easily differentiated (the homological claim). This claim of Quammen's can of course only deceive those readers who are unaware of the facts of modern science. Advances in the field of molecular biology definitively invalidate this morphology-based claim. One striking discovery that led to this is that the production of these organs, assumed to be a legacy from a common ancestor, is in fact controlled by different genes in different creatures.
The evolutionary biologist William Fix describes the collapse of the evolutionary thesis concerning pentadactylism (having five digits) in this area in the face of this discovery:
The older textbooks on evolution make much of the idea of homology, pointing out the obvious resemblances between the skeletons of the limbs of different animals. Thus the `pentadactyl' limb pattern is found in the arm of a man, the wing of a bird, and flipper of a whale, and this is held to indicate their common origin. Now if these various structures were transmitted by the same gene couples, varied from time to time by mutations and acted upon by environmental selection, the theory would make good sense. Unfortunately this is not the case. Homologous organs are now known to be produced by totally different gene complexes in the different species. The concept of homology in terms of similar genes handed on from a common ancestor has broken down. 19
NG's vestigial Darwinism
Quammen displays a striking determination not to grasp the fact that Darwin's claims have been demolished by modern science. One of the indications of this is his repetition of the claim regarding vestigial organs, a claim which is utterly illusory. It is maintained in the article that organs such as the male nipple, structures claimed to be the vestiges of rear legs in certain snakes, or the covered wings in coleoptera that are not actually used, are redundant, functionless organs left over from the evolutionary process. Quammen is clearly ignoring the definitive results from scientific developments:
The list of up to 180 supposed vestigial organs at the beginning of the 20th century eventually shrank to almost none in the face of discoveries from scientific research. One by one it emerged that a great many organs, such as the appendix and the plica semilunaris, once supposed to be vestigial organs, do actually have functions.20 "Science" is in any case the process by which human beings come to know what was previously unknown. The gradual emergence of the functions of organs that were once regarded as vestigial shows that, logically, the functions of the last few remaining organs whose functions are still unknown will soon be revealed.
Indeed, a great many present-day evolutionists have admitted that the myth of "vestigial organs" is an argument rooted in ignorance. In an article headed "Do Vestigial Organs Represent Evidence for Evolution?" published in the journal Evolutionary Theory, the evolutionary biologist S. R. Scadding admits this fact:
Since it is not possible to unambiguously identify useless structures, and since the structure of the argument used is not scientifically valid, I conclude that 'vestigial organs' provide no special evidence for the theory of evolution. 21
Evolutionists' claim on the subject of vestigial organs stem not from any vestigialism in these organs, but from the vestigial nature of their own perspectives. The existence of any living thing proves only the existence of God, its creator. The way that inanimate and unconscious atoms combine to produce a hearing, smelling, touching and seeing human being is proof of God's flawless creation. That it is because it is impossible for atoms, which cannot smell, hear or see, to wish to have perception and to combine together for that purpose. For a collection of matter to stand and look at itself in front of a mirror, or for matter to taste and touch itself, has no place in evolutionary logic. These feelings can only be explained in terms of a superior creation, in other words the existence of God and His flawless creation. Despite this self-evident truth, evolutionists hold to the irrational and blind belief that they themselves are the product of matter and blind chance, which shows that their claim regarding vestigial organs is one based on this prejudiced and dogmatic perspective.
The realisation that the organs regarded by evolutionists as vestigial do actually have functions is a proof of this. For example, the structures portrayed as the vestiges of rear legs in certain species of snake are now known to help them to grip one another during mating. To regard the male nipple as the product of an evolutionary process also rests on a distorted logic. If the male nipple were a leftover from an evolutionary process then males must have evolved from a population consisting solely of females, which is a scenario so unimaginable that no evolutionist has felt able to accept it. Coleoptera, another example cited by Quammen, also constitute no evidence for evolution. Insect species which do not develop a functional wing are generally seen in open habitats with strong winds, such as ocean islands. In an environment where strong winds blow and surrounded by large masses of water, insects' being able to fly is by no means an advantage, and may even represent a danger. That is because insects flying in the air are exposed to the effects of the wind and can be hurled into trees or rocks, ending up crippled or dead. There may, therefore, have been a tendency for them to move towards a ground-based lifestyle. Over time, the insect population that lives near the ground comes to consist of individuals that do not develop fully fledged wings. That is because, unlike flying insects, mutations that prevent insects that live near to ground level developing wings may not be damaging to the insect (on the provision that they do not cause a total interruption in its physiology).
A mutation that prevented wing development in a flying insect living in a habitat uninfluenced by winds would be harmful and maybe even lethal. That is because normally an insect that uses its wings to feed and to avoid predators would possess functionless wings because of that mutation and would be unable to survive and thus eliminated from the population.
On the other hand, in insects living in a habitat affected by winds and that used their feet to move about in the same way as non-flying insects, a mutation in the wings might not have lethal consequences. That is because the insect will already have grown accustomed to a life style in which it does not use wings, and it will make no difference whether its wings are healthy or else lose their function due to mutation (as long as the mutation in question is not one that affects the insect's general physiology). In short, a destructive mutation leading to the loss of an insect's wings may not be lethal in an environment where wings are in any case of no consequence.
However, it cannot be said that the coleoptera that are assumed to have undergone such a process represent evidence of evolution. The theory of evolution proposes that organs gradually assume a more complex form. The genetic change proposed in support of this claim must be of such a kind as to add new genetic information to creatures' DNA. It is evident, however, that coleoptera do not gain any new genetic information during this process and that, on the contrary, they suffer a loss of information in the genes that control wing development.
Can this acquisition of genetic information, which is not seen in coleoptera, be observed in any other living thing? Definitely not. Evolutionists have been unable to show the emergence of a new organ, or even a new protein, by means of random mutations.
In short, the theory of evolution maintains that living things acquire new organs with the addition of new genetic information to their DNA, but the vestigial organ argument is one that concerns a loss of function, in other words a loss of genetic data. Therefore, vestigial organs provide no scientific support for the theory of evolution. The reason for evolutionists' determination to place this claim on the scientific agenda is psychological rather than scientific. Their display of blind devotion to materialism leads them to adopt a vestigial perspective towards the evident truth of creation. (You can read Harun Yahya's article that demolishes evolutionists' vestigial viewpoint here. http://www.darwinism-watch.com/hurriyet_science0407.php)
James P. Gills, M.D., founder of St. Luke's Cataract and Laser Institute in Tarpon Springs, Florida, is a creationist scientist. He is also a world-renowned ophthalmologist. In his book Darwinism Under the Microscope, Gills cites a great many proofs of creation that totally undermine evolution, and writes that the only reason why scientists still insist on evolution is the spiritual cataract of thinking of themselves as the product of blind chance. 22
The error of thinking that resistance to antibiotics and DDT is evidence of evolution
The NG article seeks to show that bacterial immunity to antibiotics and insects' resistance to such pesticides as DDT constitutes evidence for evolution. On the subject of the resistance that microbes appear to develop to drugs Quammen confidently states:
There's no better or more immediate evidence supporting the Darwinian theory than this process of forced transformation among our inimical germs. (p. 21)
However, Quammen's excitement in portraying bacterial immunity as evidence for evolution is totally misplaced. It is explained below why these two phenomena do not represent evidence for Darwinism.
The first of the "deadly molecules" employed against micro-organisms was penicillin, discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928. Fleming discovered a molecule that killed the Staphylococcus mould bacterium, after which antibiotics taken from micro-organisms were used against various bacteria. Although it appeared at first that definitive results had been obtained, the truth later emerged: bacteria gradually acquire resistance to antibiotics. The great majority of bacteria exposed to antibiotics die, but since a small minority remain unaffected this rapidly multiply and eventually come to constitute the entire population. Thus the entire population becomes resistant to the antibiotic.
However, there is no question of bacteria developing through mutation here, because the bacteria already possess the characteristics in question before being exposed to antibiotics. Despite being an evolutionist publication, Scientific American magazine admitted these facts in its March 1998 edition:
Many bacteria possessed resistance genes even before commercial antibiotics came into use. Scientists do not know exactly why these genes evolved and were maintained. 23
Insects acquire resistance to pesticides such as DDT in the same way, and, again in the same way, this represents no evidence for evolution.
The prominent evolutionary biologist Francisco Ayala accepts the truth of this in the words:
The genetic variants required for resistance to the most diverse kinds of pesticides were apparently present in every one of the populations exposed to these man-made compounds. 24
One of those to carry out the most detailed research on this subject is the Israeli biophysicist Dr. Lee Spetner. In his book Not by Chance, published in 1997, Spetner showed that bacterial immunity is brought about by two different mechanisms, but that these offer no support for the theory of evolution. For more detail on this subject see http://www.harunyahya.com/20questions05.php#q19 and http://www.darwinismrefuted.com/embryology_01.html)
Another so-called piece of evidence in the NG article, in addition to the resistance in bacteria and insects, concerns genetic similarities.
The deception that evolution can be observed
NG claims that evolution can actually be witnessed in nature and in the laboratory. This, however, is a fantastical and groundless claim. In an article titled "How Are New Species Formed?" published in the 14 June, 2003, edition of New Scientist, George Turner made the following significant "admission":
Not long ago, we thought we knew how species formed. We believed that the process almost always started with complete isolation of populations. It often occurred after a population had gone through a severe "genetic bottleneck," as might happen after a pregnant female was swept off to a remote island and her offspring mated with each other. The beauty of this so-called "founder effect" model was that it could be tested in the lab. In reality, it just didn't hold up. Despite evolutionary biologists' best efforts, nobody has even got close to creating a new species from a founder population. What's more, as far as we know, no new species has formed as a result of humans releasing small numbers of organisms into alien environments. 25
As we have seen, evolutionists do not actually know how new species are formed. In other words, Quammen's claim about being able to witness evolution in action is totally unfounded. The fact that the long years of study carried out by the Grants into chaffinch beak lengths on the Galapagos islands is cited in support is the result of Darwinism misrepresenting variations to represent evidence for itself. (For further information, see http://www.harunyahya.com/nas04.php)
As we have seen, Darwin was wrong. National Geographic's posing the question whether he was wrong is as ridiculous as asking "Was Freud wrong?" or "Was Marx wrong?" That is because, like Freudianism and Marxism, Darwinism is a theory that has come to the end of its life. We call upon NG magazine to abandon its support for this outdated myth and to accept that creation is the true origin of life.
What NG needs to do is to set its preconceptions to one side and cease supporting Darwinism as a dogma, and to face up to the scientific evidence that undermines this theory. Discoveries in the last 40 years in particular have definitively revealed the invalidity of the naturalist philosophy at the heart of Darwinism. If NG does face up to that fact it will see that the organised complexity of life and the genetic information on which it depends point to intelligent design, in other words that life did not evolve on its own through chance and natural events, but was "created."
NG - and all other Darwinists - have so far avoided facing up to this, and may therefore have resorted to covering up the difficulties facing their theory. Yet they must be aware that this avoidance will be of no use in keeping their theory alive. That is because a major development in the world of science is serving notice that the age of sweeping matters under the carpet has come to an end.
The way that the intelligent design movement, that has been sweeping through the USA over the last 10 years, has one by one unmasked the dogmas of Darwinism, has made it the focus of wide interest. The intellectual basis of this movement is the "Theory of Intelligent Design." The theory in question maintains that complex biological structures containing large amounts of information can only be explained in terms of intelligence-based causes, and that these causes can be empirically studied in the field of biology. 26
One indication that the intelligent design movement may represent the dynamic for major cultural changes is the way it is effectively and in a widespread manner revealing that the evidence for so long taught as evidence for Darwinism in schools actually consists of mythology, deception, misrepresentation and even fraud. California Berkeley University's Professor Phillip E. Johnson, the leader of the movement, stresses that Darwinism will pass into the dustbin of history sometime in this century. 27
It will be of use here to remind NG of the damage from a determined persistence in its policy of uncritical defence of Darwinism. It will be remembered that NG announced the discovery of the Archaeoraptor fossil discovered in China as definitive proof that birds evolved from dinosaurs, without waiting for it to be described in referred scientific journals. Later, however, it was realised that the fossil did not represent a missing link at all, but was a counterfeit "produced" by a Chinese peasant.26 Because of its blind devotion to Darwinism NG had no hesitation in embracing this fossil as "proof" by unscientific methods, and later found itself in "modern paleontology's greatest embarrassment." 29
According to the ornithologist Dr. Storrs Olson, "National Geographic has reached an all-time low for engaging in sensationalistic, unsubstantiated, tabloid journalism." 30
The portrayal of the claim of recapitulation, which died at least 80 years ago, as evidence for evolution in NG's article "Was Darwin Wrong" shows that it is devoid of the seriousness required by science and is continuing with its "unsubstantiated, tabloid journalism." NG is not behaving intelligently. Maintaining this approach does not provide any support for Darwinism. On the contrary, NG is documenting its own dogmatism in an ever more obvious way.
We invite NG to consider these points and to accept that creation is the true origin of life.
There is no doubt that the Lord of all living things, on Earth, in the Sky, and between, is God. In one verse of the Qur'an God reveals that:
Your God is One God. There is no god but Him, the All-Merciful, the Most Merciful. (Qur'an, 2: 163)
Under the pen name of Harun Yahya, Adnan Oktar has written some 250 works. His books contain a total of 46,000 pages and 31,500 illustrations. Of these books, 7,000 pages and 6,000 illustrations deal with the collapse of the Theory of Evolution. You can read, free of charge, all the books Adnan Oktar has written under the pen name Harun Yahya on these websites www.harunyahya.com
1. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library.
2. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, p. 189.
3. Michael Behe, Darwin's Black Box, 1996
4. For more information about the evolutionist theses on biogeography, please see Walter J. Remine, “The Biotic Message: Evolution Versus Message Theory”, Saint Paul Science; 1st ed edition, 1993. page 538.
5. G. Nelson & N. Platnick, Systematics and Biogeography: Cladistics and Vicariance, Columbia University Press, 1981, p. 223.
6. Fossils and Evolution, Dr TS Kemp - Curator of Zoological Collections, Oxford University, Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 246.
7. Peter G. Williamson, "Morphological stasis and developmental constraint: real problems for neo-Darwinism," Nature, vol. 294, 19 November 1981, p. 214; Stephen E. Jones, http://members.iinet.net.au/~sejones/
8. Gordon Rattray Taylor, The Great Evolution Mystery, Abacus, Sphere Books, London, 1984, p. 230.
9. Boyce Rensberger, Houston Chronicle, November 5, 1980, p. 15.
10. Voorhies M.R., "Ancient Ashfall Creates a Pompei of Prehistoric Animals," National Geographic, Vol. 159, No. 1, January 1981, pp.67-68,74 ; "Horse Find Defies Evolution" Creation Ex Nihilo 5(3):15, January 1983, http://www.answersingenesis.org/docs/3723.asp
11. Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, p. 184.
12. Spotting Mines With Dolphin Sonar , ScienceNOW 1998: 2
13 L. Rutimeyer, "Referate," Archiv fur Anthropologie, 1868
14 Keith S. Thompson, "Ontogeny and Phylogeny Recapitulated", American Scientist, vol. 76, May / June 1988, p. 273
15 G. G. Simpson, W. Beck, An Introduction to Biology, Harcourt Brace and World, New York, 1965, p. 241.
16 Stephen Jay Gould, "Abscheulich! - Atrocious! - the precursor to the theory of natural selection," Natural History, March 2000, p. 45.
17 Mark Ridley, "Who Doubts Evolution?" New Scientist, vol. 90 (25 June 1981), p. 832.
18 Gould S.J, "Evolution's Erratic Pace," Natural History, May 1977, p. 13-14.
19 William Fix, The Bone Peddlers: Selling Evolution, Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, 1984, p. 189.
20 J. Bergman & G. Howe, Vestigial Organs are Fully Functional, CRS Books, Terre Haute, IN, 1990.
21 S. R. Scadding, "Do 'Vestigial Organs' Provide Evidence for Evolution?," Evolutionary Theory, vol. 5, May 1981, p. 173.
22 James P.Gills, M.D. & Thomas Woodward, Ph.D., Darwinism under the Microscope, Charisma House, 2002, p. 39.
23 Stuart B. Levy, "The Challenge of Antibiotic Resistance," Scientific American, March 1998, p. 35
24 Francisco J.Ayala, "The Mechanisms of Evolution," Scientific American, vol. 239, September 1978, p. 64
25 George Turner, "How Are New Species Formed?," New Scientist, vol. 178, issue 2399, 14 June 2003, p. 36
27 Phillip E. Johnson, "Mothballed Science," Touchstone Magazine, December 2003
28 For more information about Archaeoraptor forgery, please see http://www.harunyahya.com/20questions03.php#q7
29 Tim Friend, "The 'missing link' fossil that wasn't", USA Today, 02/01/2000
30 Open Letter to National Geographic Society by Storrs L. Olson, Curator of Birds, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution
About the Author
ABOUT THE AUTHOR, HARUN YAHYA
Born in Ankara in 1956, Adnan Oktar writes his books under the pen name of Harun Yahya. Ever since his university years, he has dedicated his life to telling of the existence and oneness of Almighty Allah, and to disseminating the moral values of the Qur'an. He has never wavered in the face of difficulties and despite oppression, still continues this intellectual struggle today exhibiting great patience and determination. For mor information pls visit: http://www.harunyahya.com/theauthor.php
Plant-eating crocodiles in the fossil record? Found where?
I heard about them years ago, that they were found in strata that placed them after the Cretaceous. I would be most interested to know whether they evolved only in isolated places like S.America when it was surrounded by ocean, or Madagascar -- just like giant birds. It would support the extinction theory I wrote about at dinotheorist.com.
"The reported find of a fossilised herbivorous crocodyliform (Wu, 1995) is almost as surprising as finding a herbivorous member of the Cat Family. Crocodiles are perceived as reptilian predators par excellence in the popular mind. From diagnostic features in the teeth, the "first known herbivorous member of that group" has been identified, named Chimaerasuchus paradoxus."
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Do Dragons Walk Among Us (Carry Out They Still) Part 1
Just about any culture on earth comes with an oral tradition of runs into with big, strange beasts? creatures different from those we realize. Were they dragons? Why don? big t we still have dragons among us? Or maybe do many of us? Will we all ever know for certain?
Exactly what are dragons?
From the fossil file, we've a sizeable body of knowledge about huge animals that are no longer represented in the animal kingdom. Though these kinds of creatures varied greatly when it comes to size, appearance, diet, environment, mode involving motility, and probably almost every other characteristic, all of us collectively call all such anciently died out species? dinosaurs.?
In regards to what ended their particular presence on the planet, we've only rumours, with people of differing thoughts being just as adamant concerning their points of see. Standard evolutionary hypothesis favors the explanation that the devastating Meteorite hit the planet earth about 65 million years back, creating extended darkness from dust and debris thrown to the atmosphere, thus snuffing out and about many living forms.
The particular creationist standpoint, however, tends toward an infinitely more recent time frame for the collective demise of the large ancient animals. Precisely how recent is a subject of debate, even the type of who share the same basic Biblical viewpoint, with? old-earth? creationists occupying something of a middle ground between your evolutionists and the? new-earth? creationists, that date the earth at around 10, 000 years. Those two groups agree that the death of the dinosaurs was due to the Genesis Flood and/or the global geological and climatic changes that transpired after that.
Those who want to think that dragons really lived (and who wouldn? t?) might you should consider a probable link involving dinosaurs, the Loch Ness beast, and a great flood (or the fantastic Flood).
Dragons around the world
Both Old and New Testaments talk about monsters? the books of Job, Psalms, Isaiah, and Revelation. Dragons can be found in the Babylonian creation story; Nebuchadnezzar built the city of Babylon with carvings of dragons all around the walls, and put the dragon upon his close off. Ancient Egyptians used images of dragons to protect their palaces. Both ancient Greeks and Romans experienced dragon mythologies, as do China and Japan, Mesopotamia and India.
Europe comes with an especially rich tradition of dragons. The Vikings carved dragons on their ships. Celtic nobleman in England were named? dragons.? Pendragon means? chief dragon,? or head of most chiefs among the ancient Britons. Scotland and France have dragon contacts. Wales gets the dragon since its country wide symbol. Britain alone has nearly 200 sites identified together with dragon lore.
As a land composed of islands, Great britain has an obvious attract creatures that thrive in or close to water, which might explain its particularly strong relationship with dragons? an association that produces sense in the Flood scenario. Several local fests of ancient origin continue to re-enact the actual killing of the resident dragon. Around England are generally places named for dragon slayings. Monster Hill will be where St. George, patron saint of England, is said to have killed the dragon. Tale says that grass has never since grown where the dragon? s blood was spilled.
United states has the share regarding dragons. Mexican history provides Quetzalcoatl? component serpent and part beautiful bird? the particular god of wind, intelligence, and life. The actual Algonquin Indians of United states worshipped any dragon known as Piasa; the actual Apache group had one called Chiricahua.
Based on dragon lore, many and varied types of dragons as soon as graced the planet earth. Some have two legs, some have four, a few none. Some have wings. Several breathe flame, some have poisonous stingers on the tails. Some have parts of the body of another animal or of a human. Some have scales; some have smooth, leathery epidermis. They can be found in all colors and a variety of sizes. Common history is important here, since features just like color and skin texture can't be determined from fossil exam. These descriptions could be superimposed upon the ones from dinosaurs without taxing the imagination.
Curiously, while Western dragons are portrayed since man-eating and evil, Far eastern dragons are believed good, type, and intelligent.
How can Nessie easily fit into?
Much while the traditional land-based monster, the floating around monster likewise enjoys a worldwide reputation. Of those, the actual Loch Ness list is arguably the most famous.
Studies of Loch Ness monster sightings pretty much agree on what Nessie appears like. She (I? m going to call it? she? intended for simplicity? s sake) is really a large dog, 20-60 legs long, with a thick, rounded back and a muscular-looking tail. She has a small head along with lashes extensions and a long neck of the guitar, a little thicker than an elephant? s trunk area, forming numerous arches. She's got elephant-like skin and two really short forelegs or perhaps flippers. Her body might have a fin as well, and is grayish-black. She actually is reportedly an easy swimmer.
Nessie has been spotted periodically for above 1400 many years. The initial recorded sighting was by St. Columba within 565 ADVERTISING.
Loch Lochy, Loch Lomond, and Loch Shiel all have been sites of probable monster presence. Ireland includes a lake animal they call up Plasts; Wales has one called Afanc. The uk? s deepest human body of fresh water, Pond Morar, over 1, 000 ft deep, possesses Morag.
Sweden has the Great River Monster. Spain has several lakes together with long-necked animals. A pond in Japan now states a pond monster, because does River Van, a saltwater river in southeastern Chicken.
Lake Okanagan inside British Columbia hosts Ogopogo. In america, Lake Champlain offers Champ, Wallowa Pond in Oregon has Wally, and California-Nevada? t Lake Tahoe has received a number of sightings involving strange drinking water creatures.
What Nessie et ing. could be
Most arguments against Nessie becoming any known types of creature start with an assumption of the evolutionary scenario. It's been suggested that Nessie might be an associate of the supposedly died out group archaeoceti, a suborder regarding Cetacea, the actual order including whales, porpoises, and dolphins.
It's not uncommon regarding animals thought to have gone extinct to show up alive and well. One example may be the coelacanth, the fish of the order crossopterygii, the actual order which includes a fish considered to have been the ancestral of property vertebrates. The particular discovery of a live coelacanth necessitated any rearrangement of the? family tree.?
Additionally, your pet species we have do not always belong to neat groups. The platypus and the spiny anteater (both mammals) lay down eggs. Bats (also mammals) take flight. The lungfish and the mudskipper (both fish) walk, and the walking perch can live for a day without water due to a supplemental respiratory system chamber that enables the fish to make use of air. Several snakes put eggs, others give birth to reside young, yet each one is reptiles. Indeed, the essential problem with taxonomy (the actual classification of organisms in a ordered method) is that it presupposes any correlation between your various levels of classification and the geological schedules of which they differentiated from one another.
Nessie might be an aquatic animal like a hippo or even crocodile that breathes together with just her nostrils over the waterline, or perhaps an amphibian together with gills, or any other unique creature.
While many descriptions of Nessie are similar, differing photos taken associated with her might suggest different species of lake pests. The presence of several species is not unlikely.
To be continued?.
We hope you identified the Fossil Crocodile you have been looking for today. We show a large range of gemstones such as Fossil Crocodile on our site. Everyday we scour the internet to locate the best deals for Fossil Crocodile and other gems using our web portals. If for any reason you can"t find what you were searching for today, check out our other pages and categories on the right hand side or use the search box. Thank you for visiting gemstone store.
Unexpected Fossil Shark Tooth Megalodon and Angustidens Finds
Charms the name itself gives a beautiful feeling. History of charms is long lasting. It starts with beautiful funky jewelry. Charms may be reasonable, whimsical, magical, kind or more. These magical pieces offer us love, luck and protection. There are so many things to use as charms from past to present life. Can be
And many more who do not complete the list. Charms are not only beautiful, but had a religious significance magical. Charms reflect the individuality of the user. Now, one day is more individual and transcendent. It can be used differently as a anklet, hold a handbag and hidden in a bag, tied on a keychain, necklaces collection of pets, belt, strap, mobile phone, charms, pendants and more. The bracelets are the best known pieces of jewelry.
The first piece of jewelry is "Snail-shell." He was taken 20,000 years to improve fertility and avoid the evil eye. Fossil fish teeth, is thought to be used to cure dropsy and spleen. He was giving a special protector for a newborn child. "Unicorn horn" is actually the narwhal's horn. Rarely and hard to find and is believed to contain magical properties and can detect poison. "Talisman" is the name given to the piece of jewelry the lucky charms of its charm is as strong as it was for our ancestors. The objects themselves give the magical power of the planetary influences. "Garra de Tigre" is a charm and it is believed that if you use them gives you the power to ward off the evil tiger.
'Rosary' are the types of accounts of things that used in the Catholic Christian. to cure the disease.
'Cruces' are the most beautiful and charming important in the collection of the devotion of thousands of years ago the Greek used to carry crude crosses are the same length. Tsar crosses "are major intersections in London and comes from Russia. "The Cross of Malta was a popular means 800B.C. and Divine Protection and Prosperity." Stars' are the Universal Declaration of the Holy Symbol. In Judas and Islamic culture stars used against misfortune and evil. " Hearts "is the symbol of love. It is a symbol of life, love and feelings. In the 17th century it was believed that the mother leave a baby at the orphanage heart-shaped symbol of the continuation of the maternal presence, and the protection of the future.
Gemstones conveying any sense talking about Amber to Turquoise blue every stone has its own history and association to some or other passion. "Amber" is used in ancient Rome for a sore throat Appeal recently amber beads used for nursing babies to less painful teething and teeth stronger. "lapis lazuli" is considered the stone of friendship and truth. "Esmeralda" in ancient Rome was the color of Venus, The color of beauty and love. 'Ruby' signifies the passion and the fire gives the user a sense of warmth. "Sapphires" are wisdom, compassion, loyalty. "Game" was the stone of bishops and cardinals. Large number of awesome power is attributed to Amethyst. It is believed that if all the worn round the neck protection against snake bites. "Opals" age believed to be used as a healing power. It is also believed that opals are able to solve depression and help users find real true love. "Topaz" comes in many colors and meaning of the reputation for being handsome and intelligent and makes women fertile and happy. Jade is a gemstone with energy. This stone beautiful beautiful is a joy, vivacity and happiness to the wearer. "Corals" and its use have been part of the religious beliefs of the centuries. This is more what in Buddhism, where the revered lamas Coral and use for their rituals. coral stone is helpful for improving self-confidence, administrative capacity and the power of the use of rights in social and political spheres. The 'before' turquoise mines dating back to as early as 3500 Over the years BC, Turquoise has been thought of as a stone with magical properties and ancient folklore tells us that the stone can bring good luck in health, the money and romance.
The language of feelings was still charming 20 century. These are popularly gifted magical trinkets to celebrate marriage with the arrival of the newborn. Aaron Basha United States the company is meant for their baby shoe enamel charms. London link enchanting hung miniature items such as shoes, baby carriage and toy animals. List is endless, but the beauty of these magical charms still ... ... ..
About the Author
I am Meenakshi Baid . Presently working as a position of faculty in Indian Institute Of Gem And Jewellery Jaipur from past four years. I am residing in Jaipur in joint family. I had done my education from Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh(India).Teaching is my passion .
Is it true that the largest fossil shark teeth are serrated and serrated teeth evolved?
Evolved because there is some evolutionary advantage sawtooth have?
It is true. Fossil shark teeth are about 420 million years with no serrations. http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/evolution/earliest.htm However, not all species of modern sharks have serrated teeth. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shark_tooth
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All About Pottery Porcelain
As inside the other arts, after the introduction of the Renaissance, France imitated Italy from the creating of pottery and porcelain, but native talent soon asserted itself along with a actually French character grew to become noticeable.
The earliest of your famous French potters was Bernard Palissy (1510-1502), a terrific designer and painter on glass who 1st created pottery in imitation of metal work and later originated designs in amazing and grotesque forms, making use of reptiles, masks, leaves, (flowers, fossil shells along with other rustic types which ended up being modeled in relief on plates, pitchers and useful articles.
Porcelain pottery is described as white (although it could be colored artificially), translucent, vitreous and resistant to thermal shock. Porcelain is also an excellent insulator that it can be applied in creating false teeth.
He spent quite a few years of his life in discovering and improving enamel which he regarded as a satisfactory coating for the rustic pottery which was so remarkably modeled. This pottery is extremely uncommon and only identified in museums. It is often found to be reminiscent from the design of early wood burning fireplaces.
Porcelain pottery was born in China. This is why ceramic can be called "china" in English-speaking countries. The initially specimens dated back to as far as the 6th century. Porcelain was also mentioned in the accounts by Marco Polo in the course of the 13th century.
Italian majolica was 1st introduced into France about 1692, and reproductions of it were known as French faience. In the city of Nevers the Italian pottery was indifferently copied, and gradually Persian and other Near Eastern influences ended up seen in the decorative motifs. Another locality of early faience was in the city of Rouen, where manufacturing was began about 1644.
The faience built in this metropolis became additional delicate and refined in quality and also within the character of your designs used. Many with the designs for platters had been arranged in a graceful radiating pattern of tiny blue, green or yellow flowers on a cream background. We also find arabesque, Lambrequin, cornucopia and sheath and arrow patterns. Rouen pottery had a fantastic influence from the popularizing of this material for household use.
This mixture is fired up to 1200â,,?, glazed, and fired again. Much care is required when generating porcelain. For example, impurities present from the clay might create a grayish or pinkish product as opposed to pure white. You'll find 3 sorts of porcelain pottery: Hard paste porcelain, gentle paste porcelain and bone china.
Hard paste porcelain is fired at a temperature increased than what is required for doing gentle paste porcelain. This makes it harder as feldspar hardens glaze the greater the temperature at which it is fired. Hard paste porcelain is created up of fifty % china clay, thirty percent china stone or feldspar and twenty p.c flint. Its appearance is translucent. Hard paste porcelain is initially fired between 900â,,? and 1000â,,?. The temperature for the second firing should be amongst 1350â,,? and 1400â,,?.
We hope you identified the Fossil Teeth you have been looking for today. We show a large range of gemstones such as Fossil Teeth on our site. Everyday we scour the internet to locate the best deals for Fossil Teeth and other gems using our web portals. If for any reason you can"t find what you were searching for today, check out our other pages and categories on the right hand side or use the search box. Thank you for visiting gemstone store.
The kind of organic gemstones is quite small, but includes some unusual varieties that are important trade in precious stones including Coral, pearl, ivory and amber.
All organic gems are quite rare, but none more than amber. Amber is the fossilized resin hardened pine tree, Pinus succinifera mainly composed about 50 million years. amber natural has been used since prehistoric times for jewelry, amulets and religious objects. The most prized pieces contain inclusions of insects or plants or pyrite.
Yellow, orange and brown are common colors for amber, blue amber is found but rarely in the Dominican Republic. The term "amber" has entered the English language as the color that is halfway between yellow and orange. The clarity of the natural amber color ranges from transparent to opaque. Most Parts have bubbles or inclusions. When Polished Amber has a resinous luster.
Unlike most gemstones, amber is amorphous and not crystalline. It is quite soft, with a score of 2 to 2.5 on the Mohs hardness scale. Although it is durable enough to have survived for millions of years, which is sensitive to acids, caustic solutions, alcohol and petrol perfume. Will burn if ignited by a party, releasing a smell of frankincense.
One of the characteristics Amber is most unique is exceptionally light. Has a density or specific gravity of only 1.05 to 1.09. Amber is so light that float on water salt. Amber low density makes it difficult to imitate with glass or plastic, which have a much higher density. By way of comparison, the total volume of a 5-carat piece Amber is 2.5 times the volume of a piece of 5 carats Zircon (one of the densest materials jewel).
Amber is found mainly in the region Baltic amber even younger are in the Dominican Republic. The largest reservoir in the western world is Kalimingrad in Russia, in a layer amber clay containing about 30 meters below the surface. There are large reserves of amber in the Baltic seabed, and amber often washes ashore after heavy storms. Other deposits are found in Sicily in Italy, Romania, Burma, China, Japan, Canada, Mexico and the United States.
About the Author
GemSelect is a leading online dealer in fine gemstones, specializing in sapphire, spinel, garnet, tourmaline and zircon. Natural Amber Information
When an insect has been trapped in amber and preserved, this is the kind of fossils?
A fingerprint) B) C cast) cast D) intact
From the paleontological point of view that do not fall into any of the above = A fossil resin fossil resin (colloquially called amber) is a natural polymer found in many types of strata throughout the world, including in the Arctic. The oldest fossil resin dates from the Triassic, though most of the tertiary data. The excretion of the resin of certain plants is thought to be an evolutionary adaptation for protection against insects and to seal wounds caused by damage elements. fossil resin (amber) often contains other fossils called inclusions that were captured by the sticky resin. These include bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Animal inclusions are usually small invertebrates, especially arthropods like insects and spiders, and only very rarely a vertebrate such as a lizard. Preservation inclusions can be exquisite, including small fragments of DNA. Such fossils are known as 'Amber' or 'INCLUSIONS AMBER' or simply 'Amber fossil' For more details, see the following web pages = http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fossil http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki / Amber http://search.yahoo.com/search?ei=UTF-8&y=Search&fr=ks-ans&p=amber+fossil+inclusions&rs=0&fr2=rs-top All said and done, if the choice is from the four options only then it is only INTACT!
Amber is the fossilized resin from ancient forests....
Tea Tree Oil And Aromatherapy
More severe skin infections: Staphylococcus aureus is really a strain of bacteria that lives naturally on the skin. Tea Tree Oil has long been utilized as natural treatment option owing to its anti-fungal and anti-microbial properties. And there are particular proofs that it's also an effective natural answer for nail fungus. A randomized, controlled trial of tea tree topical preparations versus a standard topical regimen for the clearance of MRSA colonization. Click here for more on tea tree oil or tea tree oil acne.
It has been confirmed via research and tests that although this essential oil took longer time to effect, it is nonetheless beneficial within the reduction of inflammation, pus formation and redness of acne. You will find numerous goods which include tea tree oil like toothpaste which isn't supposed to be swallowed in substantial quantities. Few as much as date clinical trials of tea tree oil happen to be conducted. The good news is the fact that there are several natural solutions that can give you great results in the shortest time possible.
As the skin persists with its procedure of oil secretion, the affected follicle enlarges. This controlled trial inside a hospital found that tea tree preparations used within the decolonization of MRSA had been effective, safe and nicely tolerated. Nov;32(7):402-8. Will be the case for tea tree oil treating toenail fungus rooted in genuine substantiation?
If you have acne and would like to use this for acne along with other skin conditions, you are able to effortlessly use products that contain this essential oil. Tea tree oil can be added to mouthwash or toothpaste. It could also impede rashes brought on by parasites and insects. Persons may suffer from dermatitis.
Why use this oil for acne? You'll find an endless stream of information and details regarding the amazing curative properties of vinegar and tea tree oil and you will not discover it difficult to decide and try these natural solutions in order to get rid of this painful and embarrassing condition. This process is sustained for a few weeks, and that is the time you expertise an acne outbreak. willow, birch and wintergreen) is a secure treatment for all those skin circumstances that require the dead scaly skin removed to ensure that the natural components can penetrate to work much more effectively.
The study focused on the twice-daily application of 100% tea tree oil v 1% clotrimazole mix (a topical antifungal medication) in 177 persons with toe nail fungus infections. You need to keep in mind that there is no scientific confirmation as to the efficacy of Tea Tree oil in treating nail fungus. You could also cleanse your face with an acne soap which consists of sulfur, as this has shown confirmed outcomes in treating acne. Tea tree oil is potent enough to be utilized for cold symptoms, cold sores, warts, pimples, dandruff, and athlete's foot.
J Chemother. In this comparison study, salicylic acid was superior to benzoyl peroxide for the therapy of acne. decolonization of MRSA were effective, secure and well tolerated. Are you able to use it as a natural answer for nail fungus?
Chemother. It stops the itching and calms the inflammation normally associated with eczema, psoriasis and topical skin flares.
We hope you identified the Amber Insects you have been looking for today. We show a large range of gemstones such as Amber Insects on our site. Everyday we scour the internet to locate the best deals for Amber Insects and other gems using our web portals. If for any reason you can"t find what you were searching for today, check out our other pages and categories on the right hand side or use the search box. Thank you for visiting gemstone store.
Petrified Wood in the San Jacinto River, Conroe, Texas
Why Beachcombing Is Needed For A Healthy Life
I really enjoy beachcombing and hunting fossils. As I am walking along the beach listening to the sounds of seagulls screaming against the roaring surf, soaking up the warm sun, I look down and find a sharks tooth gleaming in the sand! What is there not to enjoy about this! For the health conscious, walking a few miles up and down a beach is also a good way to lose weight.
I like hunting fossils at Myrtle Beach, Edisto Beach and Hunting Island all in South Carolina. I was able to go to Myrtle Beach this past January for a few days. I found quite a few sharks teeth, some petrified wood and several fossilized clams.
It is not too difficult to see a sharks tooth lying in the sand, you just need to take your time as you walk the beach. Finding the fossilized clams are a little more difficult. They look similar to just a black or gray rock; in fact, I pick up many rocks thinking they could be a clam. When you do find one, it is very easy to identify – it looks just like a closed clam shell! I have pictures of some fossilized clams on my website. The petrified wood looks just like bits of wood only black in color. It is interesting to pick up what appears to be a bit of wood but it is as hard as a rock.
If this sounds like a boring hobby, on your next trip to the coast, give it a try and I think you will be amazed at how relaxing yet exciting fossil hunting is.
About the Author
My name is Robert K. Moore and I am an instructor at Piedmont Technical College. I teach electronics and Mechatronics Technology classes. My hobbies include working with a 1962 Chevy II convertible, hunting fossils, particularly sharks teeth and working with electronics. Visit my sites for more articles about these topics. http://www.saturdayafternoonhobbies.com or http://www.asmartweightlossprogram.com
Is it possible for wood to become petrified in less than 2000 years?
An answer I received stated that the wood foundations of Venice are petrified. How is that possible so quickly?
Petrified Wood is an ideal stone for individuals who are constantly fluctuate between emotions, concentration levels, and anxiety based fear. The stone practices patience, and offers a slow and steady growth for a person to achieve a spiritual transformation. By stabilizing one's emotions, Petrified Wood ensures calm in those who may be experiencing fear. It offers feelings of safety and security ...
ARE YOU INTRIGUED BY THE BEAUTY FOUND IN NATURAL STONES AND FOSSILS? AMAZED AT HOW A LIVING TREE CAN TURN TO STONE AND STILL RESEMBLE A TREE? • Each of the pieces being offered here are beautiful, unique stones, once part of a living tree.• They were alive during the early Triassic Period, over 200 million years ago!• As the years passed, the once living material was covered by sediment and...
Make a fascinating accent to any space with this Petrified Wood Crystal Egg . Petrified wood is a fossil created when wood is buried under layers of sediment. Slowly all the organic material is replaced by minerals such as quartz , beautifully preserving the shape of the wood. Petrified Wood is said to calm the nerves and fears and encourages feelings of well-being, safety and security. It is beli...
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We hope you identified the Petrified wood you have been looking for today. We show a large range of gemstones such as Petrified wood on our site. Everyday we scour the internet to locate the best deals for Petrified wood and other gems using our web portals. If for any reason you can"t find what you were searching for today, check out our other pages and categories on the right hand side or use the search box. Thank you for visiting gemstone store.