Monday, 1 of May of 2017

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Rose Quartz

Great buys for Rose Quartz

Special selections for Rose Quartz online today. Wide range of rough and cut gemstones such as Rose Quartz. Buy from the best sellers on the web/h2>


Rose Quartz Gemstone 3 4 mm Rondelle Faceted Beads 16 beaded choker necklace
Rose Quartz Gemstone 3 4 mm Rondelle Faceted Beads 16 beaded choker necklace
$12.50
Time Remaining: 29m
Buy It Now for only: $12.50

Hot Fashion Jewelry Crystal Butterfly Statement Pendant Chain Choker Necklace
Hot Fashion Jewelry Crystal Butterfly Statement Pendant Chain Choker Necklace
$3.49
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $3.49

Vtg Gemstone Nugget Bead 14K Gold Clasp Necklace Jade Rose Quartz Aquamarine
Vtg Gemstone Nugget Bead 14K Gold Clasp Necklace Jade Rose Quartz Aquamarine
$44.99
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $44.99

Natural Gemstone Wire Wrap 7 Chakra Bead Healing Pendant Necklace Jewelry Gift
Natural Gemstone Wire Wrap 7 Chakra Bead Healing Pendant Necklace Jewelry Gift
$2.19
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $2.19

Pink Rose Quartz 925 Sterling Silver Gemstone Jewelry S 106 OJPD 10768
Pink Rose Quartz 925 Sterling Silver Gemstone Jewelry S 106 OJPD 10768
$14.99
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $14.99

Rose Quartz carved bat 33x28x10mm pendant bead s15022
Rose Quartz carved bat 33x28x10mm pendant bead s15022
$1.99
Time Remaining: 31m

ROSE QUARTZ GEMSTONE 7X9MM SMOOTH OVAL LOOSE BEADS 7 STRAND CHOKER BRACELET
ROSE QUARTZ GEMSTONE 7X9MM SMOOTH OVAL LOOSE BEADS 7 STRAND CHOKER BRACELET
$6.99
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $6.99

Natural Rose Quartz Gemstone 4 5 mm Smooth Round Loose Beads 13 5 Strand Lot
Natural Rose Quartz Gemstone 4 5 mm Smooth Round Loose Beads 13 5 Strand Lot
$28.50
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $28.50

NATURAL ROSE QUARTZ GEMSTONE 3 4 MM RONDELLE FACETED LOOSE BEADS 13 STRAND
NATURAL ROSE QUARTZ GEMSTONE 3 4 MM RONDELLE FACETED LOOSE BEADS 13 STRAND
$10.00
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $10.00

ROSE QUARTZ GEMSTONE 3 4 MM RONDELLE FACETED BEADS 26 STRAND CHOKER NECKLACE
ROSE QUARTZ GEMSTONE 3 4 MM RONDELLE FACETED BEADS 26 STRAND CHOKER NECKLACE
$18.50
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $18.50

Pink rose quartz crystal gem sterling silver 925 bib necklace Fully adjustable
Pink rose quartz crystal gem sterling silver 925 bib necklace Fully adjustable
$19.95
Time Remaining: 32m
Buy It Now for only: $19.95

3210 Ct Natural Pink Rose Quartz Loose Gemstone Rough Specimen R 267
3210 Ct Natural Pink Rose Quartz Loose Gemstone Rough Specimen R 267
$5.69
Time Remaining: 32m
Buy It Now for only: $5.69

1 Rose Quartz Faceted Pendulum Pyramid Healing Chakra Dowsing Chain Pendant Gift
1 Rose Quartz Faceted Pendulum Pyramid Healing Chakra Dowsing Chain Pendant Gift
$2.36
Time Remaining: 33m
Buy It Now for only: $2.36

Free Shipping Rose Quartz Silver Ring Size 85 R 5131
Free Shipping Rose Quartz Silver Ring Size 85 R 5131
$2.99
Time Remaining: 33m

Rose Quartz  925 Silver Overlay Handmade Beautiful Necklace CEUS81 978
Rose Quartz 925 Silver Overlay Handmade Beautiful Necklace CEUS81 978
$2.49
Time Remaining: 33m

Pair Smooth Oval Waterdrop Gems Rose Quartz Bead Dangle Hook Piercing Earring
Pair Smooth Oval Waterdrop Gems Rose Quartz Bead Dangle Hook Piercing Earring
$3.49
Time Remaining: 33m
Buy It Now for only: $3.49

6mm DIY Jewelry Rose Quartz Round Beads Layered Design Necklace 108Pcs H233
6mm DIY Jewelry Rose Quartz Round Beads Layered Design Necklace 108Pcs H233
$19.99
Time Remaining: 34m
Buy It Now for only: $19.99

Good Looking Designer Rose Quartz 925 Fine Solid Sterling Silver Pendant P1067
Good Looking Designer Rose Quartz 925 Fine Solid Sterling Silver Pendant P1067
$12.99
Time Remaining: 34m
Buy It Now for only: $12.99

Multi Strand Necklace Rose Quartz Smoky Quartz 14k Gold Filled
Multi Strand Necklace Rose Quartz Smoky Quartz 14k Gold Filled
$99.00
Time Remaining: 34m
Buy It Now for only: $99.00

Handmade Chips Wire Wrap Natural Gemstone Life Tree Bead Pendant for Necklace M
Handmade Chips Wire Wrap Natural Gemstone Life Tree Bead Pendant for Necklace M
$1.79
Time Remaining: 34m
Buy It Now for only: $1.79

Rose Quartz Pendant Freshwater Pearl Necklace 14k Gold Filled
Rose Quartz Pendant Freshwater Pearl Necklace 14k Gold Filled
$79.00
Time Remaining: 34m
Buy It Now for only: $79.00

Rose Quartz  925 Silver Handmade Beautiful Bracelet 215mm CB 10471
Rose Quartz 925 Silver Handmade Beautiful Bracelet 215mm CB 10471
$4.99
Time Remaining: 35m

Pink Rose Quartz 925 Sterling Silver Pendant Jewelry S 098 OJPD 10771
Pink Rose Quartz 925 Sterling Silver Pendant Jewelry S 098 OJPD 10771
$14.99
Time Remaining: 35m
Buy It Now for only: $14.99

Fabulous Designer J  T Sterling Silver Pale Rose Quartz Vintage 925 Huge Ring
Fabulous Designer J T Sterling Silver Pale Rose Quartz Vintage 925 Huge Ring
$8.50 (7 Bids)
Time Remaining: 36m



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Interesting Video About Rose Quartz


Crystal Dictionary: Rose Quartz

Rose Quartz

Conseguir una cita: Rose Cristales de cuarzo atraer romance, amor, sexo, y así sucesivamente! Cristales de cuarzo rosa!

Conseguir una cita: Rose Cristales de cuarzo atraer romance, amor, Sexo, y así sucesivamente! Cristales de cuarzo rosa! Conocer a alguien, encontrar pareja, atraer a su alma gemela! Cuarzo rosa!

Hay muchas cosas maravillosas que la Madre La tierra nos da, y sólo tal vez uno de los mejores regalos, algo que viene de su corteza, es de cristales! Hay hermosos cristales de tantos y muchos de ellos tienen increíbles y los poderes místicos!

Si la gente elige creer o no, depende totalmente de ellos, y cada vez que algo mágico y místico, sobrenatural o es vendido, siempre es (Por ley) se describe como un entretenimiento, y eso está bien para aquellos de nosotros que creemos ... nosotros somos los que saben lo que puede suceder cosas maravillosas, entre el mundo espiritual, amuletos de la buena suerte, las cosas como lectura del tarot, la ley de la atracción, ritiuals, buen karma, y ​​así sucesivamente!

Cuando se desea para atraer el amor, sexo, el romance y la pasión en su vida, un bien de gran alcance de cristal de cuarzo rosa o dos, podría ser justo lo que necesita, si desea volver a encender las llamas de la pasión en una relación existente, o quizás usted es soltero y quiere atraer a su alma gemela o combinación perfecta!

No Articlesbase.com tener alguna información impresionante? Por favor, comparte esto con alguien que usted conoce que lo necesita! Gracias! Por cierto, que no ha ocurrido a la tierra aquí por error o por accidente, este sin duda estaba destinado a ser!

Nosotros tienen estos Inducir Amor Milagro Rose Cuarzo Bolsas que se están volviendo cada vez más populares por el día! Probablemente porque son tan potentes y eficaces, y la gente quiere atraer el amor y el romance en su vida! Se están convirtiendo en casi tan popular como los número uno en ventas, que es el target = "_self"> Bolsa de medicina india Amuleto Buena Suerte!

Mi nombre es el Padre Tiempo, de www.FatherTimePublishing.com y yo soy un escritor, psíquico, y un proveedor de amuletos de la suerte potente y eficaz buena y amuletos que realmente funcionan! Por lo tanto, si desea atraer el amor, el sexo, romance, Más fechas, más pasión, y así sucesivamente, en su vida, es posible que quieran probar algo que usa cristales de cuarzo rosa!

Buena suerte y muchas bendiciones!

About the Author

Father Time can HELP YOU! You Did Not SEE THIS by Mistake or by Accident! Whether you Need a Good Ghost Writer for Hire! Or maybe you need his Daily Motivational e-mail Service! Or perhaps a Powerful Good Luck Amulet is what you Need!

It was Meant To Be that YOU found this Message on ArticlesBase.com 

Father has been a published writer for over 33 years, and He also has a fabulous Online SuperStore featuring many unique and interesting items, including Good Luck Amulets, Psychic Readings via e-mail, Indian Medicine Bags, and other Powerful & Effective Mystical Items and Good Luck Attracting Jewelry! Do YOU Want to WIN MONEY Gambling?

Father's awesome website is www.FatherTimePublishing.com where he also offers an Awesome Daily Motivational e-mail Service! You can sign-up for FREE for a limited time only!

How can I strengthen my Rose Quartz?

I know there's cleansing it, and putting it under your pillow at night.
What else is there?

Any experience with power from this stone?

Hi Mila,

As you say, cleansing it regularly works well. You can also increase the energy by working with clear quartz whenever you work with the rose quartz. Programme the clear quartz to act as a magnifier of energy.
I do a layout with the rose quartz, which is nice, very peaceful and relaxing.

I hope this helps. I wish you a beautiful future. Any other questions feel free to ask me. :-)

Finding your Rose Quartz on Amazon







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COVERGIRL Continuous Color Lipstick Rose Quartz 415, .13 oz


COVERGIRL Continuous Color Lipstick Rose Quartz 415, .13 oz


$4.94


COVERGIRL Continuous Color Lipstick gives 2 benefits in 1. Six hours of wear plus locks in moisture with over 30% emollients. Contains Vitamin A and Vitamin E....

Natural Rose Quartz Gemstone 8mm Round Beads beaded Stretch Bracelet 7


Natural Rose Quartz Gemstone 8mm Round Beads beaded Stretch Bracelet 7


$3.50


The bracelet include about 22pcs 8mm round beads, you will receive the similar item as picture, pls note the stone is unique, the color and detail on stone will be different for each other....

BEADNOVA Natural Rose Quartz Gemstone Necklace Crystal Chakra Healing Point Pendant Necklace Stainless Steel Chain 18


BEADNOVA Natural Rose Quartz Gemstone Necklace Crystal Chakra Healing Point Pendant Necklace Stainless Steel Chain 18


$8.99


BEADNOVA Natural Rose Quartz Gemstone Necklace Crystal Chakra Healing Point Pendant Necklace Stainless Steel Chain 18" About BEADNOVA For more than 10 years, Beadnova is specialized in creating and designing various Beads, Gemstone, Jewelry Findings, Cords and Clasp to satisfy every customer' s need. Our focus and our reputation are built on innovation and quality. We work closely with our designe...

BEADNOVA Natural Rose Quartz Crystal Necklace Healing Point Reiki Chakra Gemstone Pendant Necklace 18'' Chain


BEADNOVA Natural Rose Quartz Crystal Necklace Healing Point Reiki Chakra Gemstone Pendant Necklace 18'' Chain


$7.99


BEADNOVA Natural Rose Quartz Crystal Necklace Healing Point Reiki Chakra Gemstone Pendant Necklace 18'' Chain About BEADNOVA For more than 10 years, Beadnova is specialized in creating and designing various Beads, Gemstone, Jewelry Findings, Cords and Clasp to satisfy every customer' s need. Our focus and our reputation are built on innovation and quality. We work closely with our designers, our c...

Stuhrling Watches And Their Benefits

Stuhrling watches are stylish watches generally recognized for outstanding quality and craftsmanship. They're a combination of both style and convenience. A large variety of varying designs and styles of these timepieces are readily available for both women and men. These creations are created by the leading Swiss company Stuhrling Original LLC. Each of these timepieces are made with attention on details by using Swiss technologies, engineering and also art works. This product can be regarded as perfect gift items for any occasion.

Favorite Stuhrling Watches

The Metropolis line are a contemporary wrist watch comprised of metro type features. This series is perfect for men preferring trendy types and it is made in three subseries that include Metropol Elite, a sophisticated watch with a classy looking spin dial on the design. Madam Traveler is a rectangular model inbuilt with several features. This is a perfect selection for individuals travelling quite a bit. Stuhrling Metropolis, on the other hand, comes in several colors and patterns making it comfortable and very easy to choose.

Romance collection for women is available in two distinct series, "courtly" and "love," created on the theme of romance or hearts. La femme and courtly are impressive types with aesthetic beauty. The bezels are inlaid with genuine 34 cut diamonds while delicate detailing works are accented on the heart-shaped Krysterna crystal situated above the date indicator. Similarly, the love collection are automatic watches fashioned with a mix of charm and technical improvements. These offer skeletonized style, hand etched 20-jewel automatic movement, and colored leather strap.

Skeleton Winchester is actually an eco-friendly men's watch that powers automatically depending on the arm motions of the wearer. It's composed of a 20-jewel self-wind movement, blue colored steel screws, elaborate chain bracelet and rotor.  This watch is very resistant to water and may be bought in an attractive looking gift box.

Alpine Slalom can be described as a mesh bracelet timepiece appropriate for women. It comes with a skeletonized round dial in black or magenta outer dial having a gunmetal accent. The dial is perfectly protected with Krysterna crystals. The 20 jewels added in the interiors provide a glowing impact to the roman numerals coordinating both silver toned minute and hour hands.

Fantasia Quartz is yet another popular fancy design for women with the outer case manufactured from 316L surgical stainless steel blade. The round shaped dial is embellished with a rose toned butterfly design ornamented with Swarovski crystals on the bezel. The band in real leather comes in several colors like blue, brown, orange, green, and red to effortlessly go with virtually any dress or ensemble. With a number of designs available, it is important to purchase Stuhrling watches from branded outlets after taking into account the high quality, technical features, appearance, and affordability. It will also be best to seek professional help before making the final decision.

Would you like to learn more about Stuhrling watches? Be sure to visit my site to find out the top 5 Stuhrling watches.

Have you found the Rose Quartz you were searching for today on our site?. We show a wide range of rough and cut gemstones such as Rose Quartz so we hope you have found what you are looking for. Everyday we search the web to find the best deals for Rose Quartz and other gemstones using our special internet portals. If you can not find the gems you were searching for today, check out the other links on the right hand side or use the search box. Norman


Labradorite

We currently have some great deals on Labradorite. Please check out the listings below to find the best buys for your Labradorite today.


20Pcs Larvikite Labradorite Round Jewelry Making Necklace Bracelet Beads 8mm
20Pcs Larvikite Labradorite Round Jewelry Making Necklace Bracelet Beads 8mm
$1.00
Time Remaining: 30m

Well polished Labradorite Stone Pair 932 gram 403 g  529 g
Well polished Labradorite Stone Pair 932 gram 403 g 529 g
$9.50
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $9.50

9410 Ct Natural Blue Labradorite Crystal Rough Polished Rock From Madagascar
9410 Ct Natural Blue Labradorite Crystal Rough Polished Rock From Madagascar
$4.99
Time Remaining: 30m

Natural Chatoyant Labradorite Gemstone Superior Flashing Oval Cabochon 8840Cts
Natural Chatoyant Labradorite Gemstone Superior Flashing Oval Cabochon 8840Cts
$14.99
Time Remaining: 30m

3215Cts 100 NATURAL BLUE POWER LABRADORITE OVAL CABOCHON FINE LOOSE GEMSTONES
3215Cts 100 NATURAL BLUE POWER LABRADORITE OVAL CABOCHON FINE LOOSE GEMSTONES
$4.99
Time Remaining: 30m

2865CtsNatural Flamboyant Labradorite Oval Cabochon Superior Loose Gemstones
2865CtsNatural Flamboyant Labradorite Oval Cabochon Superior Loose Gemstones
$3.99
Time Remaining: 30m

SHINY LABRADORITE VIVA SMOKY QUARTZ 925 STERLING SILVER PLATED PENDANTS
SHINY LABRADORITE VIVA SMOKY QUARTZ 925 STERLING SILVER PLATED PENDANTS
$7.99
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $7.99

TOP745g Natural Labradorite Crystal Rough Polished From Madagascar B790
TOP745g Natural Labradorite Crystal Rough Polished From Madagascar B790
$29.99
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $29.99

4325Cts BEAUTIFUL NATURAL BLUE FLASH LABRADORITE OVAL CAB GEMSTONE LBD 653
4325Cts BEAUTIFUL NATURAL BLUE FLASH LABRADORITE OVAL CAB GEMSTONE LBD 653
$4.99
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $4.99

5390Cts100 NATURAL MULTI PURPLE FLASHING LABRADORITE OVAL CABOCHON GEMSTONES
5390Cts100 NATURAL MULTI PURPLE FLASHING LABRADORITE OVAL CABOCHON GEMSTONES
$4.99
Time Remaining: 31m

NATURAL LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 4 5 MM ROUND FACETED BEADS 18STRAND NECKLACE
NATURAL LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 4 5 MM ROUND FACETED BEADS 18STRAND NECKLACE
$14.99
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $14.99

COATED LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 3 5 MM RONDELLE FACETED LOOSE BEADS 13 3 STRAND
COATED LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 3 5 MM RONDELLE FACETED LOOSE BEADS 13 3 STRAND
$22.50
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $22.50

NATURAL LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 3 5 MM RONDELLE FACETED BEADS 30 STRAND NECKLACE
NATURAL LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 3 5 MM RONDELLE FACETED BEADS 30 STRAND NECKLACE
$17.99
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $17.99

COATED LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 3 5 MM RONDELLE FACETED BEADS 30STRAND NECKLACE
COATED LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 3 5 MM RONDELLE FACETED BEADS 30STRAND NECKLACE
$19.50
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $19.50

COATED LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 3 4 MM RONDELLE FACETED BEADS 18 STRAND NECKLACE
COATED LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 3 4 MM RONDELLE FACETED BEADS 18 STRAND NECKLACE
$10.99
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $10.99

Coated Labradorite 3 4 mm Rondelle Faceted Beads 16 beaded choker necklace
Coated Labradorite 3 4 mm Rondelle Faceted Beads 16 beaded choker necklace
$10.50
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $10.50

COATED LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 3 5 MM RONDELLE FACETED BEADS 18STRAND NECKLACE
COATED LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 3 5 MM RONDELLE FACETED BEADS 18STRAND NECKLACE
$10.99
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $10.99

NATURAL LABRADORITE APPROX 8 9MM ROUND BALLS FACETED LOOSE BEADS 8 STRAND
NATURAL LABRADORITE APPROX 8 9MM ROUND BALLS FACETED LOOSE BEADS 8 STRAND
$27.99
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $27.99

Handmade Labradorite Gemstone 4 5 mm Rondelle Faceted Loose Beads 13 Strand
Handmade Labradorite Gemstone 4 5 mm Rondelle Faceted Loose Beads 13 Strand
$8.50
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $8.50

NATURAL LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 4 5MM ROUND FACETED BEADS 7 STRAND CHOKER BRACELET
NATURAL LABRADORITE GEMSTONE 4 5MM ROUND FACETED BEADS 7 STRAND CHOKER BRACELET
$7.50
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $7.50

Labradorite Vintage Style 925 Sterling Silver Jewelry Earring
Labradorite Vintage Style 925 Sterling Silver Jewelry Earring
$0.99 (1 Bid)
Time Remaining: 31m

Huge Labradorite 925 Sterling Silver Pendant 2 Ana Co Jewelry P574144
Huge Labradorite 925 Sterling Silver Pendant 2 Ana Co Jewelry P574144
$14.99
Time Remaining: 31m

682 Gram 925 Sterling Silver Natural Top Labradorite Blue Topaz Pendant Jewelry
682 Gram 925 Sterling Silver Natural Top Labradorite Blue Topaz Pendant Jewelry
$10.99
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $10.99

4135Cts Natural Amazing Power Labradorite Pear Cab Untreated Loose Gemstones
4135Cts Natural Amazing Power Labradorite Pear Cab Untreated Loose Gemstones
$7.99
Time Remaining: 31m
Buy It Now for only: $7.99



« Previous1234

Interesting Video About Labradorite


Labradorite Magick

Labradorite

Add some color and beauty to everyday wear with semi-precious stones

The wonderful effects of putting the type of jewelry are endless. It could change your whole look by improving certain aspects of a whole. You can transform a dull and boring dress into something colorful and striking. Gemstones and other jewelry pieces adorned with semi-precious stones We all have that classic look to add something to improve his unique style, highlighting its beauty even more. And another good point is that not need to spend a lot of them own. They are beautiful yet very affordable.

Some not very expensive semiprecious stones including: yellow jade, Aquamarine, fluorite, Aventurine serpentine, labradorite, and carnelian, among many others. These stones still have a very high quality as they can hide stretch marks quite well and are able to maintain its luster for many, many years. Jewelry that has been made of these semi-precious stones new image, even after a long time, not Silver might look worn after a couple of years.

semi-precious stones also come in a wide variety of bold and bright colors like purple green and orange, which all look stunning any time you are used to. Wearing a turquoise necklace that has a drop of water hanging ceiling would be perfect when used with a beautiful and simple formal dress. You can also use a bright green collar decorated with stones Labradorite simple jeans and a fitted shirt. There are lots of possibilities with semi-precious stones - you could dress up or dress down and still be fashionable.

About the Author

Online shopping from the most popular online shop where you can buy more than 5000 unique fashion products for men, women, teens & kids shipped to you absolutely free anywhere in the world. SalwarKameezIndia.com offers safe and secure online purchase of diamond pendant, made to order - designer salwar kameez and different types of apparels and accessories.

What is the difference of andesine and labradorite labradorite regular jewel?

Labradorite is an intermediate for calcium (which are more calcium), a member of plagioclase. andesine labrodortie sodium would be a member (which has more sodium).

Find your Labradorite on Amazon Stores







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8x8mm Round Genuine Labradorite & 925 Silver Plated Stud Earrings


8x8mm Round Genuine Labradorite & 925 Silver Plated Stud Earrings


$8.99


SKU No : SSJHE-003 Metal : SILVER PLATED OVER BRASS Finish : High Polish Stone : Genuine Labradorite, Stone Size : 8x8mm Round, Stone Wt : 3.80ctw (2pcs) Item Wt : 3.35gms...

Natural A Grade Labradorite Gemstone 8mm Round Beads Stretch Bracelet 7


Natural A Grade Labradorite Gemstone 8mm Round Beads Stretch Bracelet 7


$12.99


The bracelet include about 22pcs 8mm round beads, you will receive the similar item as picture, pls note the stone is unique, the color and detail on stone will be different for each other....

Labradorite White Gold Plated 925 Sterling Silver Solitaire Casual Ring Size 6


Labradorite White Gold Plated 925 Sterling Silver Solitaire Casual Ring Size 6


$16.99


Labradorite White Gold Plated 925 Sterling Silver Solitaire Casual Ring...

We hope you identified the Labradorite you have been looking for today. We show a large range of gemstones such as Labradorite on our site. Everyday we scour the internet to locate the best deals for Labradorite and other gems using our web portals. If for any reason you can"t find what you were searching for today, check out our other pages and categories on the right hand side or use the search box. Thank you for visiting gemstone store.


Crystal Quartz

We currently have some great deals on Crystal Quartz. Please check out the listings below to find the best buys for your Crystal Quartz today.


Beautiful Natural 2 SOLAR QUARTZ STALACTITE Silver Wire Wrapped Pendant 10g
Beautiful Natural 2 SOLAR QUARTZ STALACTITE Silver Wire Wrapped Pendant 10g
$29.99
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $29.99

White Cactus Quartz Crystal Cluster Sunshine Quartz
White Cactus Quartz Crystal Cluster Sunshine Quartz
$42.00
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $42.00

808 g Rare Natural Red and Green Treasure Quartz WAND POINT HEALING 4246
808 g Rare Natural Red and Green Treasure Quartz WAND POINT HEALING 4246
$8.00 (12 Bids)
Time Remaining: 30m

Hot Fashion Jewelry Crystal Butterfly Statement Pendant Chain Choker Necklace
Hot Fashion Jewelry Crystal Butterfly Statement Pendant Chain Choker Necklace
$3.49
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $3.49

Natural New Find Tibetan skeletal purple quartz AMETHYST Point Specimen 80g A71
Natural New Find Tibetan skeletal purple quartz Amethyst Point Specimen 80g A71
$16.77
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $16.77

51g BLUE Aura Quartz Crystal Titanium Bismuth Silicon Cluster Rainbow
51g BLUE Aura Quartz Crystal Titanium Bismuth Silicon Cluster Rainbow
$7.50
Time Remaining: 30m

100g Natural Amethyst Quartz Mini Crystal Cluster Healing Specimen Rocks Stones
100g Natural Amethyst Quartz Mini Crystal Cluster Healing Specimen Rocks Stones
$2.79
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $2.79

733g Light Red Aura Quartz Crystal Titanium Bismuth Silicon Cluster Specimen
733g Light Red Aura Quartz Crystal Titanium Bismuth Silicon Cluster Specimen
$3.25 (3 Bids)
Time Remaining: 30m

991g GreenRed Ghost Phantom  Natural Quartz Crystal Sphere Specimen
991g GreenRed Ghost Phantom Natural Quartz Crystal Sphere Specimen
$200.00
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $200.00

84g 6PCS Natural Lemurian Seed Quartz Crystal Point China M3094
84g 6PCS Natural Lemurian Seed Quartz Crystal Point China M3094
$0.75 (5 Bids)
Time Remaining: 30m

290g GEM Green EPIDOTEQUARTZ Crystal Intergrowth Mineral Specimen
290g GEM Green EPIDOTEQUARTZ Crystal Intergrowth Mineral Specimen
$36.00
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $36.00

154g 4 Red Pink SUBULATE QUARTZ CLUSTER Iridescent Chalcopyrite Crystals
154g 4 Red Pink SUBULATE QUARTZ CLUSTER Iridescent Chalcopyrite Crystals
$4.99
Time Remaining: 30m

New Vogue Women Crystal Dial Quartz Analog Leather Bracelet Luxury Wrist Watch
New Vogue Women Crystal Dial Quartz Analog Leather Bracelet Luxury Wrist Watch
$2.99
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $2.99

Natural Deep AMETHYST Flower QUARTZ Crystal GEODE CLUSTER 358g 03
Natural Deep AMETHYST Flower QUARTZ Crystal GEODE CLUSTER 358g 03
$35.98
Time Remaining: 30m
Buy It Now for only: $35.98

100gMini Natural Red Coral Quartz Crystal Stone Chip Rough Rock Polished Healing
100gMini Natural Red Coral Quartz Crystal Stone Chip Rough Rock Polished Healing
$2.99 (1 Bid)
Time Remaining: 30m

Polished Natural Dragon Septarian Quartz Crystal Heart Specimen 456g GBX7022
Polished Natural Dragon Septarian Quartz Crystal Heart Specimen 456g GBX7022
$5.00 (11 Bids)
Time Remaining: 31m

Alias Kim Oval Face Rose Gold Crystal Women Wrist Bracelet Bangle Quartz Watch
Alias Kim Oval Face Rose Gold Crystal Women Wrist Bracelet Bangle Quartz Watch
$14.99
Time Remaining: 31m

1812g Light Blue Aura Quartz Crystal Titanium Bismuth Silicon Cluster Specimen
1812g Light Blue Aura Quartz Crystal Titanium Bismuth Silicon Cluster Specimen
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Interesting Video About Crystal Quartz


[ 藤田咲] Fujita Saki - Crystal Quartz

Crystal Quartz

When you want good luck, use the law of attraction and a magic crystal and a bag of Medicine India!

The Law of Attraction is awesome! Use Some Good Luck With him!

The Law of Attraction is a powerful force, and it works very well in conjunction with a magical amulet glass of good luck and also a medicine bag india Good Luck! There are many good luck charms and charm in the world, however, some are much more powerful and effective than others.

For example, the little cute green four-leaf clover is a "cute" little freak of nature, but not necessarily seize power, like a real piece of quartz crystal, or glass actually comes from the Earth's crust and has a capacity to last for many years, even hundreds or thousands of years!

We have some good luck Mystical magic crystals have always been a big seller, and we sometimes give one as a gift FREE with the purchase of our web site at www.FatherTimePublishing.com and when you come to have a look you'll love our online store soon!

Medicine Bag Good Luck India has always been our biggest buyer, and is probably due to (A) really work and help people, and (B) have a long history and background. Legend has it that Native American tribes that have a small bag of medicine that actually not take cold remedies, sore throat, but rather "spiritual" solutions or "supernatural" to protect the enemies here there, or evil or problems when going on a trip. The small bag with a pen, a rock, some seeds, a stick and a piece of cloth, also attract good luck and prosperity when the natives go on a hunting trip, for example!

The Medicine Good Luck Charms Exchange of India seen here are handmade by an old shaman, married couple, to follow the instructions conveyed in many generations of their ancestors! These bags are incredibly effective and powerful, and are impressive to attract good luck, good fortune, prosperity, and Love and Romance! Also ward off evil and negativity!

One of these bags india medicine used in conjunction with the Law of Attraction and a magic crystal good luck can be "all medicine" (pun intended) you need! Try it, what you got to lose?

Many Blessings!

About the Author

Father Time can HELP YOU! You Did Not SEE THIS by Mistake or by Accident! Whether you Need a Good Ghost Writer for Hire! Or maybe you need his Daily Motivational e-mail Service! Or perhaps a Powerful Good Luck Amulet is what you Need!

It was Meant To Be that YOU found this Message on ArticlesBase.com 

Father has been a published writer for over 33 years, and He also has a fabulous Online SuperStore featuring many unique and interesting items, including Good Luck Amulets, Psychic Readings via e-mail, Indian Medicine Bags, and other Powerful & Effective Mystical Items and Good Luck Attracting Jewelry! Do YOU Want to WIN MONEY Gambling?

Father's awesome website is www.FatherTimePublishing.com where he also offers an Awesome Daily Motivational e-mail Service! You can sign-up for FREE for a limited time only!

Where I can buy a ball of clear quartz crystal in the Philippines?

It would also help if you could tell me the price. I do not think the charms and the crystals have a cause only sell jewelry. haha.

visit the SM mall, I saw a quartz crystal ball in Quiapo Chinatown kiosk

Find your Crystal Quartz on Amazon Stores







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BEADNOVA Natural Rose Quartz Gemstone Necklace Crystal Chakra Healing Point Pendant Necklace Stainless Steel Chain 18


BEADNOVA Natural Rose Quartz Gemstone Necklace Crystal Chakra Healing Point Pendant Necklace Stainless Steel Chain 18


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BEADNOVA Natural Rose Quartz Gemstone Necklace Crystal Chakra Healing Point Pendant Necklace Stainless Steel Chain 18" About BEADNOVA For more than 10 years, Beadnova is specialized in creating and designing various Beads, Gemstone, Jewelry Findings, Cords and Clasp to satisfy every customer' s need. Our focus and our reputation are built on innovation and quality. We work closely with our designe...

BEADNOVA Natural Rose Quartz Crystal Necklace Healing Point Reiki Chakra Gemstone Pendant Necklace 18'' Chain


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BEADNOVA Natural Rose Quartz Crystal Necklace Healing Point Reiki Chakra Gemstone Pendant Necklace 18'' Chain About BEADNOVA For more than 10 years, Beadnova is specialized in creating and designing various Beads, Gemstone, Jewelry Findings, Cords and Clasp to satisfy every customer' s need. Our focus and our reputation are built on innovation and quality. We work closely with our designers, our c...

Natural Clear Quartz Gemstone Hexagonal Pointed Reiki Chakra Pendant Genuine Leather Necklace 18


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The item include one point pendant , one leather cord necklace and one pouch...

The Efficacy Of Quartz Infrared Heaters

Home heating is a crucial attribute in any dwelling because it makes our loved ones cozy particularly when the weather is very cold. But not every abode could have enough funds for a standard heating system and so several families endure with gas or electric room furnaces just to live with the bitter cold. Gas heaters are harmful since they give out unsafe smoke and are dreadfully combustible; electrical room furnaces are usable since it is driven by electricity but they could lead to augmented electric fees. But because of quartz infrared heaters; we could own a harmless and effective mode to warm our houses.

The quartz infrared heater, as the name indicates, mixes the capability of quartz and infrared engineering to supply nontoxic and instantaneous heat. Basically, quartz is a durable lucid mineral and believed to be the richest mineral in the world. Owing to its long-lastingness and ease of use, it is involved in a wide array of intentions like in manufacturing and jewelry-making.

A quartz infrared heater usually employs a tungsten wire; it is an excellent metallic element that glows dazzlingly and releases warmth as electricity flows thru it. The tungsten wire in a quartz infrared heater is enveloped in a quartz tube that encloses the warmth in and renders the heating constituent even warmer. As it produces tolerable warmth, the potency of infrared heating technology takes charge and lets warmth to be at readily absorbed by anyone or thing in its scope. With these inventions conjugated, the advantages of a quartz infrared heater go far.

Let's talk about 3 of the most major benefits of having a quartz infrared heater:

1. Delivers Prompt and Balanced Heat

Infrared heating technology is taken to be the most efficient heating method now. Dissimilar to typical heaters that takes some waiting time before a specific room is warmed up, infrared heaters supply warmth the minute it is started. Typical heaters run by warming a certain area which needs a few minutes due to the scattered air particles. But the infrared heater is completely different; it is not aimed to heat the air but its warmth is intended straight to people or things. This is why prompt warmth could be experienced with infrared heaters.

With the helpful rays of infrared radiation, you are guaranteed that warmth is equally dispersed in all corners of a room.

2. Inexpensive

In winter time, heaters usually enlarge our electricity charges to a shocking level. But with the quartz infrared heater, you would be glad to know that your fees will not amplify that much. A 1500-watt quartz heater eats up almost $0.19 an hour meaning that if it operates for an entire day, it'll only cost $4.56. If you calculate it on a once per month basis, your heat bills will be about $136 only which coul still be decreased because most probably, you will not be running your heater on a 24-hour basis. Regardless of whether you utilize 2 quartz infrared heaters in the house, your bills will still be exceptionally minor than what you can consume from employing other types of house heater. Plus if you understand how to employ the thermostat cleverly, you could programme it in a daily or weekly basis. The quartz bulbs are extremely sturdy as well and can last up to 5 years. And if ever you need to change the bulbs, don't worry because these just cost about $5-$16 each. Truly, cheap heating has never been this good!

3. Warrants Snug and Safe Heat

Since a quartz infrared heater draws power from infrared engineering, it does not heat up the surrounding air and lessen the level of oxygen in a stipulated setting. Typical warmers do supply heat but frequently they render the given space unventilated and uneasy. This isn't the issue with quartz infrared heaters and infrared heaters in general.

Additionally, quartz infrared heaters always have a security casing or cabinet that prohibits the exterior from getting scorching hot even though it is turned on. If you have youngsters and animals at home, you may be sure that they do not get blistered if they have contact with it. The protective casing also guarantees that the heating filaments are enclosed inside and will not start fires.

For good and harmless heating, select a quartz infrared heater and keep your home the best sanctuary that it should always be.

Looking for the best heater to heat up your home? Look no more because everything that you need is in a quartz infrared heater. Experience the power of infrared heating technology see for yourself why it is considered to be the best there is.

We hope you identified the Crystal Quartz you have been looking for today. We show a large range of gemstones such as Crystal Quartz on our site. Everyday we scour the internet to locate the best deals for Crystal Quartz and other gems using our web portals. If for any reason you can"t find what you were searching for today, check out our other pages and categories on the right hand side or use the search box. Thank you for visiting gemstone store.


Rough Crystal Quartz

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Interesting Video About Rough Crystal Quartz


Synthetic Corundum, Synthetic Spinell Gemstones, Glass, Zirconia, Lab Created Gemstones

Rough Crystal Quartz

Renato Watches With A Special Flair For Fashion

Combining smart design, true reliability, and the kind of inimitable style that draws compliments and attention like a diamond in the rough, Renato's line of charismatic timepieces for men and women offer a high premium in both utility and fashion.

Renato Men's Wilde-Beast Gen II Gunmetal Swiss Quartz Chronograph Bracelet Watch

A unique and stylish wrist accessory, the Wilde-Beast Gen II assumes you already command the feral confidence of a wild animal! This limited-edition model comes cased in gunmetal stainless steel with black carbon fiber detailing over a unidirectional rotating bezel. The casing is backed by stainless steel and features an octagonal stainless push and pull crown.

The dial, in handsome blue stainless steel with yellow accents, displays white index markers at all minute positions for enhanced readability. Arabic numerals in yellow and silver-tone appear at the 12:00 and 8:00 positions. Renato's designers have gone out of their way to make your timepiece's facility in time-measurement razor-sharp, offering subdials for seconds, deci-seconds, minute, day and date, all powered by a Swiss Ronda 5040 Quarts movement.

Renato Men's Limited Edition Swiss Quartz Bracelet Watch

Available in a black, blue or purple dial, a Renato's bracelet watch adds an elegant finish to almost any ensemble. The stainless steel casing flips over to reveal a number indicating the limited availability of this very special timepiece. On the screw-down crown, an eye-catching diamond accent exhibits a subtle hint of class.

The dial, constructed from handsome textured mother-of-pearl by Claus de Paris, is damage-protected by a scratch resistant sapphire crystal. Around the perimeter, luminous silver-tone index markers enable supreme legibility with an attractive Arabic numeral flourish at the 8:00 marker. Incandescent hour, minute and chronograph hands are powered by a Swiss Ronda 7003N quartz internal movement.

Attach the silver-tone stainless steel bracelet clasp in one smooth motion by activating the push-button dual deployment clasp. A classic, alluring compliment to your natural poise.

Renato Men's Beast Diamond Swiss Quartz Black IP Stainless Steel Bracelet Watch

This exceptionally striking time-measurement system comes cased in a round black exterior constructed from surgical grade 316L stainless steel materials. Set off by a black bezel that has been buffed to a high-sheen, the Black IP is an unmissable addition to your accessory collection.

The round textured dial is available in your choice of color: black, green, classic white, or eye-catching yellow. Polished, highly legible, silver-tone index markers highlight all hour positions except 8:00 and 12:00, where stylish Arabic numerals offer a dynamic sense of composition. Glowing hour, minute and second hands are powered by the Swiss Ronda 1069 Quartz movement, maintaining absolute chronometric accuracy up to a tenth of a second. There are only so many hours in a day and your time is valuable, so let a Renata timepiece keep you from wasting a single precious moment.

Renato Men's Beast Diamond Swiss Quartz Gold-Tone Stainless Steel Bracelet Watch

This heritage showpiece from Renata is a powerful answer to the question on everybody's lips: what time is it? Housed in a striking gold-tone surgical grade 316L stainless steel constructed casing, the Beast features a polished gold-tone bezel—a striking contrast to the brushed case. An easily employable push-and-pull crown completes the look.

The striking and effortlessly legible blue dial is topped by a damage-resistant sapphire crystal. Observe polished gold-tone index markers at every hourly position with the calculated exceptions of 8:00 and 12:00. Here, elegant Arabic numerals display the hour. Rest assured that the powerful motion behind the hour, minute and second hands, lit up for easy viewing, even in the dark, is motored by a uniquely calibrated Swiss Ronda 1069 Quartz movement—an industry standard offered by Renato to ensure a premium in unflagging chronometric accuracy and durability.

The band, in a beautiful surgical grade stainless steel gold tone, snaps easily on and off due to a push button dual deployment clasp, invisibly integrated into the linking pattern for an endless effect.

Renato Men's T-Rex Diver Limited Edition Swiss Valjoux Bracelet Watch

A breathtaking and bold innovation, this offering from Renato boasts the power of a top-of-the-line Swiss Valjoux Automatic movement behind every tick. Available only in a Limited Edition run of production from Renato, the T-Rex Diver represents a unique opportunity to enhance your collection or the collection of a loved one with true flair and an eye for quality.

The black surgical grade stainless steel outer component features an exhibition back—witness the exquisite interiors of your timepiece and enjoy its added value as a fascinating conversation piece in any setting. A striking blue dial is abetted by a blue unidirectional rotating diver's bezel. On the screw-down crown, a function dashboard is accented by a pave diamond—a subtle yet attractive touch for those who can't help but take a closer look.

A Renato timepiece is a perfect compliment for men and women, whatever their style.  Elegant design, careful craftsmanship, and unfailingly chic, Renato doesn't just keep the time - it makes it fly!

About the Author

Allison Gould is a freelance writer who writes about a variety of fashion topic and retailers such as ShopNBC.

I have a clear quartz crystal thats some-what rough, any ideas on smoothing, aside from a Rock Tumbler?

ASAP, a valentine for a sweetie...he wanted one and i have 3 he's never seen or touched. However my intuition says smooth the rougher one bc thats the one he'll behappiest with.
PLEASE HELP!
TY
~teen
well, i went and bought him a beautiful new one, heres the thing though...i really still would luv him to take my piece, as it is so full of My great energy and luv, it doesnt need to be POLISHED OR SUPER SMOOTH, its just the one end looks like its been just jumbled around in a tool drawer er something; someone suggested use a womans nail buffer.

but ty!

if you tumble it, you will ruin it. it will simply break into smaller pieces.

You won't be able to smooth a natural crystal without ruining it.

Now, if you are looking at a rock or an intergrowth of minerals, it may be possible to cut and polish one of the sample faces to bring out the details. A cut and polished gneiss with augen quartz or feldspar and good foliation can be a quite beautiful sample. I've done that before.

But natural crystals get their beauty from their natural symmetry and you cannot really polish this out without messing up the sample.

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Rose Quartz is the quintessential stone of love and for the Heart Chakra. While the pink color may exude a gentle and soothing energy, it is an incredibly powerful stone. It stimulates and opens the Heart Chakra, clears the emotional body, spreads compassion and reinvigorates the auric field. One of the most beneficial rewards in working with Rose Quartz is the heart undergoing a healing process f...

1 Lb Clear Natural Rough Crystal Quartz Point


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JIC Gem is proud to lunch this Crystal Points---Crystal Quartz. Each Pc is hand picked and good point to make Jewelry....

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Not only clear in appearance, Clear Quartz also possesses a certain clarity in its ability as a stone. This clarity is seen in its skill to be "programmed" by its holders' focused intention to help achieve their desired goal. This makes Clear Quartz a stone that is very in tune with the mind, holding the ability to align its objective with an individual's thoughts....






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Armitron 408232RED Most effective Watches

That includes a rugged crimson resin condition with black middle ring, and metalized chrome top rated ring to obtain a modern sporty seem, the Armitron 408232RED is every rough and fashionable. View characteristics easy-to-see silver digits and fade operate, even though twin alarms, chronograph, lap, countdown, twin time, and globe and navy time functions are excellent for physical exercises and traveling. A black textured resin strap completes the laidback surface and feels strong and breathable round the wrist. H2o resistance to an impressive 330 toes (one hundred meters) helps guard in direction of the elements. Boasting the accuracy of quartz movement for proper dependability, this check out comes inside of a silver Armitron box.

Armitron 408232RED Information

  •     Brand, Vendor: Armitron Watches
  •     Product selection: 408232RED
  •     Element Number: Armitron 408232RED
  •     Merchandise Shape: Spherical
  •     Dial window materials kind: Mineral
  •     Display Variety: Electronic
  •     Clasp: Fold more than clasp
  •     Scenario substance: Resin
  •     Circumstance diameter: fifteen millimeters
  •     Case Thickness: 44 millimeters
  •     Band Product: Plastic material
  •     Band length: Men’s Standard
  •     Band width: 26 millimeters
  •     Band Coloration: Black
  •     Dial coloration: Black
  •     Bezel substance: Plastic material
  •     Bezel perform: Stationary
  •     Movements: Japanese-Quartz
  •     Water resistant depth: 330 Feet

Shopper Overview

By dallas822 (Extremely wonderful looking check out)

I such as this Armitron watches and imagine it seems to be good but you'll find a number of detracting functions. The encounter is tough to go through in most lighting conditions (dimmer conditions are in reality improved employing the backlight button). The strap is usually a little bit stiff, a little bit limited, and thus challenging to buckle and unbuckle particularly when you are in a very hurry. As a final point the deal with “crystal” I believe is plastic material and might scuff or scratch quite quickly. Everything being reported, I gave it a four mainly because i think it's a pretty very good searching enjoy and looks far more impressive than you'll anticipate for the value. Another main beneficial will be the the cost (below $17). Just as before, I do think it is one in the better hunting sports chronograph variety watches I could discover for even two or 3 occasions just as much dollars on Amazon.

 

We hope you found the Rough Crystal Quartz you were searching or today. We show a large range of gemstones such as Rough Crystal Quartz and other rough gemstones. Everyday we search the internet to locate the best deals for Rough Crystal Quartz and other gems using our special web portals. If you can"t find the stones you were searching for today, check out our other llinks on the right hand side or use the search box. Thank you for visiting gemstone store.


Rough Rose Quartz

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Prehistory and Eliot's Prufrock

Prehistory and Eliot's Prufrock

 

 

 

 I don't know why this part-stanza from Eliot's Prufrock makes me think of prehistory?

 

 

                    Let us go, then you and I,

                    When the evening is spread out against the sky

                    Like a patient etherized upon a table;

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

                    Is it due to what follows:

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

                    In the room women come and go

                    Talking of Michelangelo

 

 

But Michelangelo is a late-contemporary of pre-Columbian, if not a post-Columbian.

 

 

Associative processes of mind are indeed strange!

 

 

The word Prehistory is derived by combining the words pre- (meaning,before) and history, and is a term often used to describe the period before written history. Paul Tournal originally coined the term Pré-historique in describing the finds he had discovered in the caves of southern France.The French people started using it in the 1830s to describe the time before history writing had begun, while Daniel Wilson was the first Englishman to use the word in this sense in 1851.

Prehistory can be said to date back to the beginning of the universe itself, although the term is most often used to describe periods when there was life on Earth. Dinosaurs can be described as prehistoric animals and cavemen are described as prehistoric people.

It is so, because there are no written records from prehistoric times, and the things we know about those times are obtained from palaeontology and other natural and social sciences.

The term became somewhat loose in the 20th century when the boundary between history (interpretation of written and oral records) and other disciplines became less rigid. Actually,  historians at present rely more on evidence from multiple areas and do not generally restrict themselves to the historical period and written, oral or other symbolically encoded sources of communication. Moreover, the term 'history' is increasingly used in place of 'prehistory' to describe certain passages of time, such as History of the Earth, History of the Universe, and so on. Anyway, the distinction remains important to many scholars, particularly in the social sciences. Researchers mainly peering into Human prehistory are prehistoric archaeologists and physical anthropologists who use excavation, geographic survey, and scientific analysis to reveal and interpret the nature and behavior of pre-literate and non-literate peoples.

The chronogical terms used in human prehistory are different from those used in history. There is also difference in the way it deals with the activities of archaeological cultures instead of named nations or individuals. Restricted to material remains rather than written records (and indeed only those remains that have survived), prehistory is nameless, anonymous. Due to this reason, prehistoric refereces like Cro-Magnon or Stone Age are fuzzy, modern and to some extent arbitrary labels, the precise definition of which are often subject to discussion and argument.

It is, however, interesting that the beginning of history, that is, the date when written historical records became a useful academic resource, is the date marking the end of prehistory. And it varies from region to region! For example, in Egypt it is generally accepted that prehistory ended around 3800 BCE, whereas in New Guinea the prehistoric era culminated in the early years of the twentieth century.

 

Age systems 

After the evolution of humans on earth, a geological time scale defines periods in prehistory. Archaeology supplemented this record providing more precise divisions. Generally, prehistory in the Old World is designated by a three age system. This system classifies human prehistory under three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies. In the New World, however, other naming schemes are used, for example, those listed in Archaeology of the Americas. But, such loosely defined systems of dividing up prehistory are not quite accurate because recent archaeological discoveries suggest a much more complex view of prehistory.

 

The three-age system consists of Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. The Stone Age is further subdivided into Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic Periods. As stated earlier, these three consecutive age systems are named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies. The system is quite correct in describing the progression of European  society, and has also been used to describe other prehistories. However, it has been criticized for being too technologically determinist.

 

Stone Age and its People 

  

TheStone Ageis a broad prehistoric time period when humans widely used stone for tool making from a variety of different kinds of stone. Flint and chert were shaped (or chipped) for use as cutting tools and weapons.Basalt and sandstone were used for grinding and sharpening purposes, such as quern-stones. In addition, wood, bone, shell, antler and other materials were widely used. Sediments (like clay) were used to make pottery during the later part of the period. The subsequent Copper, Bronze and Iron Ages were characterized by a series of metal technology innovations.

The period witnessed the first widespread use of technology in human evolution, and humanity  spread from the savannas of East Africa to the rest of the world. Development of agriculture, domestication of certain animals and the smelting of copper ore to produce metal. It is named prehistoric because humanity had not learned to write yet. Written records are considered as the traditional starting point of history.

Archaeologists called it the "Stone Age" because stone tools made during this pre-metallurgic time survived far more widely than tools made from other, softer materials. It is the first age in the three-age system, and John Lubbock subdivided it into thePaleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in his now classic 1865 book, Pre-historic Times. These three periods are again subdivided because the succession of phases differs enormously from one region (and culture). In fact, humanity continued to step into new areas even during the metal ages. Homo habilis or the precursor of humanity evolved during the first phase or Paleolithic period of the Stone Age. Then, 1.75 million years ago, a new species - the Homo Erectus (upright man) appeared on the scene, and spread from Africa to Europe and Asia. The Upright Man not only stood erect, but also had a bigger brain than Homo habilis. He was capable of making better tools, and was probably the first human being to use fire. Then, about 400,000 years ago, the Homo sapiens or the thinking man made his debut, and humanity took its first. shaky step forward. Their descendants, the Neanderthal people (named after a valley in Germany), lived in Europe and the Middle East until about 35,000 years ago. They dealt with the severe cold of the Pleistocene or Ice Age by living in caves.

 

Prehistoric Culture

 

Apparently, two types of Homo sapiens lived side by side - the Neanderthals or early Homo sapiens and a subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens, who looked more or less like a modern human being. The Neanderthals were heavily built, but did not possess a chin. They used simple tools and had probably spoke to one another by developing a language. It is not known why they died out,  leaving us as the only humans on Earth. The survivors -- such as the Cro- Magnons -- lived all over Europe during the Stone Age period. These prehistoric people built simple wooden huts, fished and hunted deer and wild cattle. They wandered around in search of food. They began to express themselves through art, drawing pictures on cave walls and carving stones into human shapes. There are famous example of detailed cave paintings in Lascaux in France and Altamira Spain. The Lascaux painting, known as The Magician, shows a man with a pointy face and the body of a goat. The Altamira painting depicts a bull realistically  with enormously developed shoulder muscles.

 

Prehistoric life is a compendium of different types of organisms which inhabited the Earth from the origin of life nearly 3.8 billion years ago to the time when humans began to keep written records, known as the beginning of the Historic Period(circa 3500 BCE).

During the course of evlution new forms of life developed and many other forms, such as the dinosaurs, became extinct Prehistoric life evolved over this vast timespan from simple bacteria-like cells in the oceans to algae and protozoa, and ultimately to complex multicellular forms such as fungi, land plants, worms, molluscs, crustaceans, insects, and vertebrates.

In geologic terms, humans evolved very recently, only about 4 million years ago.

Very few species of prehistoric life (such as the coelacanth) still exist today unchanged, tens of millions of years later, thereby making them living fossils. Yet other creatures, like sharks, have changed but a little over millions of years.

However, most life forms -- over 99 percent -- have become extinct, and so the only record of them ever existing that remains today are rock imprints, casts or other fossils.

 

Prehistory of India 

 

The prehistory of India may be regarded as beginning with the old Stone age or the Palaeolithic period. India defines the eastern limit of the area where hand axes are found, and there are numerous other areas of different findspots. For instance, hominid remains of middle Pleistocene date have been found in Hathnora in the Narmada valley. A middle palaeolithic quarry has been found recently in the Kaladgi Basin, southern India.

 

Indus Valley Civilization and the emergence of Aryans

 

It is generally accepted that the Indus Vlley Civilization, which is also called the Harappan Civilization evolved and reached its peak between 3000 BC and 1800 BCE. It covered a wide area consisting of Afghanistan in the west to the Ganges plains in the east; as also the Pamir cluster in the north to the Rann of Kutch in the south. Traces of its traditional beginning, known as the Indus tradition have been detected at Mehrgarh going back to 7000 BCE. Believed to be     the largest among the so called Bronze age civilizations of the period, little is known about this lost civilization because attempts made by historians in deciphering the Harappan script have been in vain. Towards the end of the second millennium BCE, the civilization started to decline, and there is no clue as to where did the Harappans come from and what happened after 1700 BCE. However, apparently that was when the Aryans believed to have entered India through the Khyber Pass. Disagreements abound among contemporary Indologists over the exact events because the Harappans left a huge amount of archeology but no decipherable literature. The Aryans, in their turn, created and left for posterity a vast corpus of  literature in the form of vedas and other religious and literary works, but no archeological edifice. The elusive lost civilization of Harappa generates a lot of mystifying questions and problems, which would probably remain unanswered and unsolved for all time to come.

 

Anyway, it is an established fact that the people of India have had a continuous recorded civilization since the 7000 BC with its roots in the Mehrgarh complex of the Indus Tradition in northwest India. It was an urban culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade, reaching its most prosperous phase in the 2600 BCE in the valleys of the Indus river. Perhaps, ecological changes are behind the decline and eventual disappearance of this civilization between the 19th century BCE and 17th century BCE - no one knows.

 

However, satellite imagery and oceanographic studies supplement recent data indicating that the civilisation flourished even as far back as the 9000 BC. It has also been known (and found) that a tradition of Indian rock art dates back to 40 - 50,000 years.

 

 

History as defined by a timeline

 

Prehistory is assumed to be between 200000 BCE and 3500 BCE as also later;  the Three Age System (Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages) -- upto 3500 BCE;  Ancient history -- between 3500 BCE and 476 CE;  pre-Columbian -- from 14,000 BP to 1492 CE and later;  Classical Antiquity -- from 7th century BCE to 476 CE;  Middle Ages -- 476 CE to 1517 CE;  Modern history -- from the 15th century CE to present.    

 

The pre-Columbian era includes all the subsequent period subdivisions in the  history and prehistory of the Americas before European influences on the Continent became particularly noticeable. Notionally, the term means  the era before the first landing of Christopher Columbus in the American Continent  in 1492.  In effect, however, the era incorporates the history of American indigenous cultures as they went on flourishing even after 1492 till such time they were conquered or the European influences became significantly prominent. This could be  decades or even centuries after the first landing. 

 

Normally, the term pre-Columbian is used to mean the great indigenous civilizations of the Americas, especially those of the Mesoamerica :- of the Aztec and Maya;  and of the Andes, Moche and Chibcha civilizations.

 

Societal hierarchies of fascinating complexity, monumental architecture for civic and religious purposes, generally permanent or urban settlements and agriculture, all created without any outside influence, were the significant characteristics of the pre-Columbian civilizations. By the time the first permanent European settlers had arrived (between late fifteenth and early sixteenth century CE), many of these civilizations had ceased to function. These are now known only through archaeological investigations. Some contemporaries of them are also found in the historical accounts of the time. The Mayan Civilization had a script in which they had set their records. The invading Europeans regarded such texts as blasphemous and heretical to Christianity and burnt them in pyres. Somehow a few, presumably, hidden texts survived providing the modern historian with tantalising vistas of ancient culture and knowledge. 

 

Indigenous accounts as also American and European documents and records at the time of the European onslaught show that these civilizations were capable of doing fascinating things. For example, they had the most populous city of the time and they knew about the modern theories of astronomy and mathematics. Where they are extant, the culture and society of the descendants of such civilizations generally now be very different from the ancestral one. Even then, these people and their progeny display traits and follow traditions and practices originating in those earlier times and influenced by more recently acquired trends.   

 

Sequence of migration to the New World

 

Bering Land Bridge, which is the present day Bering Strait, was the passage for crossing over to the Americas by the nomads from Asia. Over time spanning millenniums (millennia?), they spread all over the continent. When exactly the first group of people did so is, as usual, a matter of controversies and debates. Anyway, the commonly held view is that people of the Clovis culture were the earliest, and were identified with sites going back to nearly14,000 years. Later on, sites as old as 20,000 years have been found, and genetic researches lead to the conclusion that the first batch of migrants reached the shores of Americas sometime between 40,000 to 13,000 years ago. Another belief is that the lands were populated by multiple waves of immigrants.

 

Be that as it may, archaeological finds in both North and South America are estimated to be 12,000 years old by Carbon dating, while Cape Horn, the southernmost place in South America, is belived to have been inhabited at around the same time. The common theme of agreement among all theories is that the Innuits and the related people (Eskimoes and such) arrived at Alaska separately much later (probably 6th century BCE) moving across the ice in Siberia.

 

Prehistory

 

The first complex civilization evolved after the migration or migrations around 5,000 BCE. Those people of the Americas were hunter gatherers, and they were inhabiting much of the continent's area upto the 18th century BCE even though the advanced civilizations had evolved by then. The archaeological cultures of such hunter gatherer societies can be identified as belonging to the categories, such as, Early and Late Paleo-Indian Periods; Archaic Period; and Early, Middle and Late Woodland Periods.              

 

Agricultural development

 

Such early inhabitants of the Americas started agricultural practices, raising maize having ears of lengths varying from 2 - 5 cms to even 10 -15 cms. Other plants grown by them were potatoes, pumpkins, tomatoes and avocadoes. As not many suitable species were available, there were not many livestocks. For meat, however, the guinea pig was raised in the Andes. Maize had been taken from Mexico in the fifteenth century CE to the Mississippi embayment and was grown as an agricultural crop there, but further developments were not possible due to the arrival of the Europeans at that time. The Incas grew potatoes, while the Aztecs farmed cocoa used in chocolates. When the Europeans arrived in North America, many Natives there were semi-nomadic tribes of hunter gatherers. Others belonging to agricultural and sedentary societies formed new tribes or confederations in retaliation to European colonization. Among them, the well-known groups were the Apache, the Cherokee, the Sioux, the Iroqouis and the Mohegan. The Iroquois consisted of a number of sub-groups like Mohawk, Oneida, Seneca, Cayuga, Onandaga and subsequently, the Tuscarora tribe. The Inuits are a later addition to such groups. There were numerous pre-Columbian sedentary societies in the present day United States of America, not so politically complex and technologically advanced as the Mesoamerican civilizations down south were.

 

Mississippian Culture

 

Occupying a large area along the Mississippi River, the people of the Mississippi Culture in pre-Columbian history earned the nickname the Moundbuilders because of their distinguishing characteristic of building large earthen mounds. Their society was complex and stratified, they cultivated intensely growing maize and other crops, and they carried on trading activities quite extensively. Emerging and growing out of the less intensively agricultural and less centralized Woodland period, the Mississippians appeared on the scene circa 1,000 CE. By 1200-1400, the Culture reached its peak, following which it apparently went on decline. In fact, when the Europeans there was not much left of it. Their largest site was Cahokia, located near present day East St. Louis, Illinois. The city apparently had a population of over 20,000. It was the most populous city in North America at the time of the flowering of the Mississippi Culture between the 12th and 13th centuries, but nowhere near the much larger cities in Mesoamerica and South America. Its ceremonial centre, the Monk's Mound, is regarded as the largest prehistoric earthen construction in the New World.        

 .

Mesoamerica

 

It is the region delineated by central Mexico in the south and the northwestern border of Costa Rica, and the land mass from which emerged a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations existing for nearly 3,000 years before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World in 1492 CE. The pre-Columbian culture of this region is generally known as Mesoamerican. Mesoamerica is an environmentally similar region where for more than three thousand years various ancient cultures having nearly similar views on art, architecture, religious beliefs and technology flourished and left their imprints and marks for posterity. Formation of complex cultures began in Mesoamerica circa 1800 BCE, and continued for the next 1500 years. Some of them made progress and gave rise to advanced pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations like the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Huastec, Purepecha, Toltec and Mexica, and continued for about 4,000 years before the first encounter with the Europeans. Such indigenous civilizations built pyramids and temples; created highly accurate calendars by abacus calculations along with a complex theology; made significant progress in astronomy, engineering, fine arts, intensive agriculture, medicine and writing; and discovered the wheel. As they did not possess any animal to drag loads, the wheel was used only as a toy. They knew how to work on metals and used copper and gold obtained locally to make various objects. They excelled in counting and devised one of the most complex counting system in the world with a base of 20 number system. Archaic inscriptions on rocks and rock walls of northern Mexico, particularly in the province of Nuevo Leon, are testimonies to their expertise in counting and number systems. Astronomical events influenced the Mexican Natives to a great extent, and those very early and ancient counting marks were associated with astronomical activities long before the Europeans came on the scene. It would appear that the Mexican based civilizations coming later built their ceremonial centres and cities by taking into account specific astronomical events.

 

Mesoamerican cities like Cholula and Teotihuacan were among the largest cities in the world of their time. Growing up as centres of ceremonies and commerce; and of ideas and theology, those cities provided inspiration to the neighbouring cultures in central Mexico. Such city-states, empires and kingdoms competed with one another and often went into war for power and prestige. Generally, however, Mesoamerica could be regarded as the seat of five major civilizations - the Mexica and the Maya; the Olmec; and the Teotihuacan and the Toltec.

With the exception of the politically divided Maya, the other four spread out to exert their influence over Mexico and beyond its boundaries. Consolidating their power over the neighbouring regions, they went on influencing the latter in matters of art and trade; politics and technology; as also theology. The regional powers formed economical and political alliances with them to make peace, and, in general, everybody was under the thrall of one of these five spheres of influence.    

        

Olmec civilization

 

It is the earliest known civilization in Mesoamerica, setting the pattern of cultural development, which the societies formed later in Mexico were to follow. Beginning from around 2300 BCE, the Olmec culture started making potteries in abundance. Then followed the consolidation of power beyween 1800-1500 BCE by the Olmec chiefs and the founding of a capital in a site near the coast in southeast Veracruz, a place known today as San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan. Across Mexico, the Olmec spread their influence, then to Central America and continued along the Gulf of Mexico. A new form of government, pyramid-temples, astronomy, art, mathematics, economics, writing and religion were the areas in which their excellence changed the thinking of many people. The greatness of the yet to come Maya civilization in the east and the flowering of the civilizations to the west in central Mexico owed a lot to the achievements of the Olmec.

 

Teotihuacan civilization

 

As the Olmec civilization declined, there was a power vacuum in Mexico. The Teotihuacan culture forming around 300 BCE filled that space. Circa 150 CE, it had developed considerably  making Teotihuacan the first genuine metropolis in contemporary North America. Teotihuacan introduced a form of economic and political order which was unlike anything seen before in Mexico. Extending its influence across Mexico, Teotihuacan established new dynasties in the Maya cities of Copan, Kaminaljuyu and Tikal. Bringing about changes in artistic illustrations, political power and the nature of economics, Teotihuacan's influence over the near contemporary Maya civilization remained intact for a long time. The residents of the city of Teotihuacan were diverse and cosmopolitan; they represented many of the regional ethnicities of Mexico, for example, the Zapotecs hailing from the Oaxaca region. People lived in apartment communities where they worked on their professions and thus improving the qualities of the city's cultural and economic aspects. By 500 CE, Teotihuacan had become the largest city in the world exercising its economic clout to regions far in northern Mexico.The architecture of the city, especially its monuments, conveyed the spirit of the times: a truly monumental era. The political decline began around 650 CE, but the cultural supremacy was maintained for 300 years more.

 

Maya civilization 

 

Closely following the Teotihuacan culture was the Maya civlization, which reached the pinnacle of its glory between 250 and 650 CE. It was the time when the attributes of the Maya culture bloomed fully. Consisting of several city-states, the Maya civilisation failed to cobble political unity in the manner of the central Mexican cultures. But that did not deter Maya to provide a beneficial and forceful intellectual leadership to the Central American and Mexican cultures. The Maya cities were built with very detailed planning and were far ahead of the cities elsewhere in the continent. Their tremendous contributions in astronomy, mathematics and writng elevated the status of  Mexico to greater heights.

 

Aztec/Mexica civilization

 

Political fragmentation ensued in the Valley of Mexico, when the Toltec civilisation went into a decline. Into those troubled waters came to fish, for the Toltec mantle, complete outsiders - people of the Mexica civlization. Born and brought up in a desert climate, they were one of the seven fiercely proud groups who earlier preferred to be called Azteca to preserve the memory of Aztlan. Owing to frequent migrations from one place to another, they changed their name to Mexica. They were regarded as crude and uncivilized because of their origin from some place other than the Valley of Mexico. But they were shrewd and skilled in ferocious fighting. Combining these two traits, they formed a triple political alliance with two other Aztec cities, Texcoco and Tlacopan, and became the leader of the group. 

 

Though they came later to the central plateau of Mexico, from the start the Mexicas bestowed on themselves the legacy of the civilizations before them. Achievements of the earlier residents of Tula, the Toltec society, they identified as their own. These included fine arts, architecture, engraving, feather-mosaic works and the introduction of a calendar. Around 1400 CE, the Mexica-Aztecs became the rulers of a large part of central Mexico while Apaches, Coras and Yaquis controlled most of the regions of northern desert. By 1470, they consolidated their positions further after conquering most of the regional states. At that time 300,000 Mexicas held sway over 10 million people (among the total 24 million population of Mexico) who paid tributes to them. The modern nation of Mexico owes its name to them. Present day Mexico City was the site of their capital, Tenochtitlan. It was peopled by nearly 300,000 residents and boasted of a market which the conquistadors (from Europe) said the largest they had ever seen.

             

South America

 

In the first millennium of the Christian Era, the vast rainforests, mountains, plains and coasts of South America were inhabited by tens of millions of people, some of them settling down permanently. Among such permanent settlers, the Chibchas of Colombia, the Quechuas of Peru, and the Aymaras of Bolivia were the three major sedentary Indian societies in South America. It would appear that they were in contact with the Polynesians as indicated by the availability of sweet potato in some regions of the Pacific, but there is no trace of genetic imprint left behind by the visitors.    

 

Chibchas

 

Among the pre-Hispanic Colombians, the Chibcha linguistic communities were the largest. They  occupied a large territory and were socio-economically well developed.They laid the foundation of their civlization in the Andes in the third century CE. Modern Panama and the higher areas of the Eastern Sierra of Colombia were under their occupation at one time. The Departments of North and South Santander, Boyaca and Cundinamarca were also held by them. These are the areas where the first farms and the first industries were developed and the movement for independence was started. At present these areas are the richest in Colombia, and at one time were the most populous zone between the Inca and the Mexica civilizations. Of the sedentary indigenous cultures of South America (including the Quechua of Peru and the Aymara of Bolivia), the Chibchas of the eastern and north-eastern Highlands of Colombia were the most advanced.The Chibchas of the Oriental Andes were remarkable in the sense that the various tribes (Muiscas, Laches, Guanes, Chitareos and so on) among the population spoke in a common language, Chibchan.     

 

Norte Chico

 

The Norte Chico on the northern coast of Modern Peru was a cluster of big urban settlements whic formed and devloped circa 3,000 BCE, contemporaries of similar cultures in Mesopotamia. They flourished for about 1200 years, and then declined. One of the largest and most investigated sites among them is in Caral in the Supe Valley. 

 

Chavín

 

The Chavin, archaeological finds and investigations point out, was a pre-literate civilization which lasted for about 600 years from 900 BCE. Agricultural development and establishment of a trade network were among its characteristics. The archaeological discoveries were made at a site known as Chavin in modern Peru at a height of 3,177 metres above sea level.

 

Moche

 

The Moche culture flourished 1,500 to 2,000 years before present in the north coast of Peru. They had elaborate burial rituals discovered recently by Christopher Donnan of UCLA in collaboration with with the National Geographic of the USA. People of this culture were technologically advanced as is revealed in their skilled artisanship. Their ceramic pottery carvings depict generally religious practices along with scenes from their daily lives. It is known from such sources that they practiced human sacrifice and carried out blood-drinking rituals.  

 

Inca

 

The great cougar-shaped city of Cusco was the seat of power (capital) of the Inca civilization, which dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533 CE. It was called the "land of the four regions" or Tawantin suyu in Quechua and was a very advanced civilization of the times. Under the Inca rule lived nearly hundred ethnic or linguistic communities comprising of 9 to 14 million people connected by a 25,000 kilometre road network. They built the cities with detailed planning and their houses were constructed of unmatched stones. Such houses were built over many levels on the sides of a mountain.Terrace farming was a natural corollary to such practices and increased the agricultural output. Exquisitely crafted metalworks of the Inca civilization are extant, and there is evidence of successful brain surgery carried out in the Inca civilisation.

 

Australia

 

The prehistory of Australia begins about 40 to 70,000 years ago with the first human habitation of the Continent and ends in 1606 with the first definitive sighting of Australia by the Europeans.              

 

Arrival of humans

 

A matter of controversy, the generally accepted timeframe for the migration of humans to Australia is between 40 to 45,000 years ago. There is an upper range supported by others going back to 70,000 years. The return of the ice age due to repeated glaciation during the Pleistocene period cooled and turned a lot of sea water into ice, due to which the level of the seas went down to the extent of 100 to 150 metres thus exposing previously submerged land bridges joining various land masses. Apparently, migration took place in the closing period of the Pleistocene era when the sea levels were much below than at present. Due to this, the continental coastline extended out considerably into the Timor Sea , and Australia and New Guinea became a single landmass called Sahul. Large, far-reaching land bridges across the Arafura Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria and Torres Strait joined Australia to New Guinea. It is believed that the ancestral people initially navigated the relatively short distances from and  between the Sunda Islands to reach Sahul. Having done that, they made use of the land bridges to spread out all over the continent. There are archaeological evidences of human habitation in the upper Swan River, Western Australia nearly 40,000 years ago. Tasmania was the next destination via a land bridge, and was reached by humans around 30,000 years ago.

 

A consequence of such early land bridges is the sharing of plant and animal animal species between Australia-New Guinea and the neighbouring Indonesian islands. Those land bridges vanished when rising sea water flooded them at the close of the last glacial period. The rising of the sea level due to melting ice stopped, roughly, about 6,000 years ago, and since then remained more or less constant. That is when, according to the traditions of indigenous Australians, the history of the continent begins. They call it Dreamtime, the mythical saga of creation narrating the origins of the people, animals and geography. The traditions of Dreamtime pervaded the indigenous Australians and still do in songs and stories all over Australia.

 

The presence of charcoal in archaeological excavations indicates that fire had been a part of the Australian landscape always. The incidence of fires increased when the hunter gatherer inhabitants started using it to scare away animals as well as to produce a new flush of vegetation to attract herbivores. They also started fires to burn off  and open up impenetrable forests. This resulted in densely grown areas becoming more open sclerophyll forests and open forests turning into grasslands. There was a profusion of fire-tolerant species, notably, sheoaks, euclypts, acacia and grasses.

 

The fires, however, brought about far more dramatic changes in the fauna than it did in the flora. Megafauna, defined as species considerably bigger than the humans, completely disappeared while the smaller species fared little better. It is estimated that 60 different vertebrates became extinct, including the Diprotodon species, very large marsupial herbivores closely resembling hippos. The list of the vanished include several flightless birds, carnivorous kangaroos, lizards of 5 metres length, a tortoise with the dimensions of a small car and so on...Why did it (extinctions) happen remains a matter of conjecture. It could be fire, hunting, climate change or a combination of all. Experts, however, agree that it was human intervention of one kind or another which speeded up the process. Climate change, once regarded as the probable cause, is no longer in favour. In the absence of large herbivores, the understorey vegetation grew up unchecked; rapid recycling of soil nutrients due to their dung stopped; and consequently there was more quick fuel build up. The fires burned hotter, altering the landscape more.      

 

The Australis meaning Australia and its surroundings during the last glacial maximum about 18,000 years ago was very different from what it is today. The sea level was about 150 metres below the present level, and large parts of the Sunda Shelf (Malaya/South East Asia), Sahul Shelf/Australia-New Guinea and the Bass Strait were above it. Moreover, portions of southern Aotearoa, the Tasmanian highlands and the Australian Alps were glaciated, and the Antarctic ice covered much more area in the north than it is today.

 

Prior to European colonization the quantum of populations settled in Australia is not known. There are two hypotheses, the trihybrid and single-origin settlers, and both of them have been discussed extensively. The issue, however, acquired political overtones when single-origin was assumed to be tied in to ethnic solidarity and multiple entry was cited in justification of the seizure of Aboriginal lands by European settlers. Not much objective data is available to reach a definite conclusion. There is an ongoing research on human genomic differences to find a conclusive answer, but there is not much evidence to differentiate the "wave invasion" model from the "single settlement" one.  

 

There was increased aridity due to low temperatures and less rainfall in the continent between 18,000 to 15,000 years BP. When the Pleistocene era ended around 13,000 years ago, the link from Kangaroo Island, the Bassian Plain between modern Victoria and Tasmania, and the Torres Strait connection got submerged in the rising sea. Apparently,the end of the ice age was quite sudden - as reflected in Aborignal legends of fishes falling from the sky and of water walls(tsunamis).The situation elsewhere was not that catastrophic, the sea level rose slowly. The result was geographical separation of the Tasmanian Aborigines from the continent and slow decimation of those living in the small islands in the Bass Strait and in Kangaroo Island by 9,000 BP.

 

The Austronesians of modern New Guinea and the indigenous Australians (Aborigines) maintained contact after geographical separation, as is supported by linguistic and genetic evidence. However, it was mostly trade, little intermarriage and absolutely not a colonisation, even though there were instances of Aboriginal settlers finding a home in Indonesia.   

 

Culture

 

Over the last 5,000 years the climate mellowed down with increases in temperature and rainfall, bringing forth a sophisticated tribal culture. Their items of trade were flint, precious stones, shells, seeds, spears, foodstuff and so on. People from Cape York to south-west Australia spoke the Pama-Nyungan language, excepting those in the south-east and Arnhem Land. Religious ideas, legends, stories, songs and dances were much the same throughout the country. Coming of age or initiation of the young to adult ways of life was celebrated by ceremony and feasting. There was a code of behaviour , and the responsibilities of an individual to relatives and others were marked out. There were moieties among communities with powers to forbid intermarriages in the community. Unlike the usual hereditary chiefs, community elders held political power who settled disputes in accordance with tribal customs. Vendettas and feuds were there, but planned wars were totally absent. As people believed that they were the descendants of the same cultural heroes, and there were bonds through marriage or blood, differences were not resolved by going into war.     

 

3,000 years before colonisation, the indigenous Australians had been using quartz as a substitute for chert in their craftwork. For increasing food sources, they planted yam in Western Australia and carried out fish (eel) farming.

 

In 1788, there were approximately half a million indigenous Australians or Aborigines - other estimates put the figure as one million. They were composed of hundreds of distinct cultural and language groups; most of them were hunter-gatherers; and they practiced land management. The last perhaps was a lesson they learnt from the ecological havoc their initial settlement thousands of years ago had caused. In areas with lakes and rivers, such as Murray River Basin, the hunter-gatherers changed their professions to fish farming. The European settlers displayed no interest in the indigenous Australians, and perhaps made little effort to know about their cultures and languages. Legend has it that before the Europeans started settling in Australia in bulk, diseases were deliberately introduced to decimate the indigenous Australians also in bulk, so as to minimise the exposure of the first to the second. In 1770, when James Cook declared Australia as a part of the British Empire, there were nearly 500 tribes among the Native population speaking several hundred different Australian Aboroginal languages, with many different dialects.   

 

Contact outside Australia

 

Before the Europeans came, for thousands of years people residing along the northern coastline, that is, the Kimberley region of Western Australia, Arnhem Land, Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape York had interacted and traded with people from outside. Even after the land bridges were submerged as also before the event, commodities of trade along with people moved freely between New Guinea and Australia 6,000 years ago. With the bridges flooded, the trade and people to people contact continued across the newly-formed Torres Strait, whose 150 kilometre width was navigated by stopping at the intermediate islands and Coral reefs along the route. Settlers in those islands were seagoing Melanesians, and the indigenous Australians from northeast of the continent maintained a cultural link to the outside world through this route nearly 2,500 years ago. The visits of the Indonesians and the people of New Guineea to the Australians and vice versa for fishing and trade by sailing crafts point to the possibility of similar forays by the Arab and the Chinese traders as earlly as 9th century CE. The controversial Bradshaw figurines in Kimberley art are stated to have been brought by Indian visitors in the early years of the Christian Era. For several hundred years, Indonesian "Bajini" fishermen from Spice Islands (e.g., Banda Island) had fished off the coast of Australia. Nearly, 400 years ago Macassan traders of Sulawesi (Celebes) regularly came to the northern coast of Australia for trepang (an edible sea cucmber) to trade with the Chinese.

    

Prehistoric Art

 

Prehistoric art is defined as all artwork created in preliterate cultures, which begins somewhere very recent in the geological time scale. 

 

In Algeria, cave paintings of everyday life in central North Africa were found in Tassili-n-Ajjer, north of  Tamanrasset and in other places drawn in a vivid and realistic manner. Those works of art dating back to 6 - 10,000 years were created by hunters of the Caspian period of the Neolithic Age roaming about in tall grasslands full of gigantic buffaloes, elephants, rhinoceros and hippopotamus. Such animals are no longer found in the region which is now arid and almost like a desert. Those cave paintings are a record of prehistoric African culture.

 

Predecessors of such people in the central North Africa had left behind for posterity equally important remains. Ain el Hanech near Saida yielded signs of early hominid occupation in North Africa nearly 200,000 years before present. More recently, investigators discovered there signs of Oldowan technique dating back to nearly 1.8 million years BCE. Much later, about 45,000 years ago, Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles, similar to those found in the East Mediterranean region. North Africa, some sources indicate, represent the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic flake-tool techniques. Oranian or Ibero-Maurusian is the term used to describe the earliest blade industries  in North Africa, named so because of the findspot near a place called Oran. Apparently, this technique of creating stone daggers spread all over the coastal regions of North Africa during 15,000 to 10,000 BCE.  Then the method came under the gradual influence of  the Caspian culture for the next 5,000 years with the result that from 3,000 BCE remains of just one human type can be found throughout the region. About 4 to 8,000 years ago, Neolithic culture with its characteristics of animal domestication and subsistence agriculture took hold in the Mediterranean and Saharan North Africa. Upto the classical period, this Neolithic way of life prevailed in North Africa, and the cave paintings in Tassili-n-Ajjer are a detailed illustration of that.  Such people of different ethnicity in North Africa over time gave rise to a distinct native population called Berbers. Even though they had clearly perceptible cultural and linguistic characteristics, the Berbers continued to be ignored and neglected in historical accounts due to the presence of larger empires nearby. They are mentioned as barbaric enemies, ignorant peasants or troublesome nomads by Roman, Greek, Byzantine and Arab Muslim historians. This marginalisation is uncalled for because the roll the Berbers played in the history is not insignificant.

 

Indigenous Australian (Aboriginal) rock and bark paintings indicate a vigorous cultural exchange with the neighbouring islands of the continent; as also the introduction of techniques like the dug-out canoe and items like tobacco and pipes for smoking it. Intermarriage and migration among descendants of Malaya people in Australian Aboriginal communities and vice versa resulted in acquisition of Macassan words in Aboriginal languages (for example, Balanda for White person). 

 

Middle Acheulean period spanning 500,000 to 300,000 years before present hold the still unbroken record of the first ever dicovered figurine; 6 cms. in length, it looks like a human figure, and was found in Morocco. It appears from evidence that this piece from Morocco was shaped by natural processes with probably no human tool-work. There are, however, indications of the figurine having been painted. A greasy substance composed of a mixture of iron and manganese (ochre) covers the surface of the stone. Experts are of the view that no matter how it was formed, it was undoubtedly painted by someone who used it as a figurine.      

 

The history of art was indeed shaken at its roots by the findings in the South African Blombos Cave. Stones discovered there are decorated with complex red arrays. It showed that the creator or creators, the early Homo Sapiens were capable of abstraction and of its representation as a work of art. The breath-taking aspect is that those stones were adorned 70,000 years ago, which is nearly 50,000 years more than the age of the art-work found in Lascaux, France. There is no doubt about the dating; but there is no indication that the pieces really do represent advanced cognitive behaviour, a hallmark of modern art. A number of eminent archaeologists are, however, not convinced that the Blombos Cave is the first example of art.

 

Cave paintings (like the renowned ones at Alta Mira, Chauvet, Lascaux and Pech Merle) and portable art (like animal carvings and the widely-known Venus figurine,  the Venus of Willendorf) are the earliest examples of European art from the Upper Palaeolithic epoch. It is generally believed that only Homo Sapiens have the ability to express in an art form. That is not exactly true because Homo Erectus had created much before the former apparently purposeless designs on artefacts. Artefacts of this kind were found in Bilzingsleben, Thuringia, and could be regarded as the precursor of art. Those items reveal that the maker's intention was to decorate, and to create something which had no practical application. But that does not mean  all art works are of no use. There are Middle Palaeolithic tools like hand axes in general and laurel points in particular, in shaping which so much attention was given to symmetry that experts regard them as works of art as well. After the recent discovery of the mask of La Roche-Cotard in France, it is now believed that Neanderthal  man could possibly have to his credit a meaningful artistic culture. Also relevant in this context are the findings from the Mizyn Archaeological Site of Ukraine, Mammoth ivory bracelets with carved meander ornaments dating back to Mousterian epoch of the Palaeolithic period. The Mesolithic period has also provided some examples of  portable  stylized rock art like painted pebbles from Birseck and Eremitage sites in Switzerland as also in the Spanish Levant. Artistic designs on items of use, for example, rowing paddles from Tybrind, Denmark are well-known in Mesolithic archaeological finds. 

 

Neolithic

 

In ancient Japan, the Jomon culture is credited with making potteries from braided and unbraided clay cords. Archaeological evidence shows that Jomon people were making clay figures and vessels adorned with increasingly sophisticated patterns by pressing the designs on wet clay in the 14th to 11th millennium BCE. Free standing sculptures decorated with animal figures started to be installed in the Neolithic period. The earliest were anthropomorphic figurines usually embellished circa 10th millennium BCE, and were found in Nevali Cori and Gobekle Tepe near Urfa in eastern Turkey.

 

In Lepenski Vir, the Mesolithic statues at the Iron Gate, Serbia are dated 7th millennium BCE, and depict humans or fishes and humans together. Many Neolithic cultures in Central Europe like Linearbandkeramic, Lengyel and Vinca made female figurines (rarely male) and animal figures with artistic qualities. In this context, Zelisovsce and painted Lengyel style of potteries with elaborate decorations are not always regarded as works of art.  Monuments made from large stones or megalithic structures of the Neolithic period are found from Poland to the British Isles, in the tip of the Sahara desert at Nabata, Egypt; and some more sites. As they belong to the 5th millennium BCE, some experts call them mesolithic; but, that is difficult to prove. The temples in Malta, not quite widely-known, constructed circa 3600 BCE are the oldest free standing structure in the world. Simply built with post and lintel architecture, they look very imposing. Likewise, there are Minoan (Crete) structures, built at the time of the more famous Egyptian Pyramids.  During the early Bronze Age, the equally famous Stonehenge was erected near Amesbury, Wiltshire, England. In fact, many such monuments are there in Western and Northern Europe, and can be found in Carnac, France; in Skara Brae in the Orkney Islands; and in Portugal. The Avebury Circle, the tombs at West Kennet and the Woodhenge also belong to this group. The tomb in New Grange, Ireland has a big stone at its entrance, on the face of which is carved a complex design of spirals. Stones of the tomb at Knowth have ornamental carvings, one of which could possibly be the oldest known image of the Moon. A number of these megalithic monuments are tombs, and archaeologists believe these have some religious significance. The tomb at Knowth is so richly ornamented with carvings that experts elieve it contains about one third of all megalithic art in Western Europe.                   

 

Bronze Age

 

The Bronze Age began in Europe the in 3rd millennium BCE ushering in a new medium for art. As tools made from bronze are more durable than those made of stone, more items were produced resulting in a surplus - the prime requirement for the formation of a class of artisans. With the creation of more wealth in the society than ever before, the demand for luxury goods, especially decorated weapons, increased. Now, there were bronze headgears, ornamental axe-heads and swords; things like lure used in falconry; and other ceremonial objects without a practical purpose. There was a profusion of rock carvings (made by bronze chisels) depicting scenes of daily life and religious ceremonies like those in Bohuslan, Sweden and the Val Camonica in  northern Italy.

 

Iron Age

 

In the Iron age, anthropomorphic sculptures were made, like the Warrior of Herschlanden and the statue from Glauberg, Germany. Perhaps under the influence of the Classical world resulting from trade, the Hallstatt artists in the early Iron Age preferred desgns of abstract and geometreical nature. A curvilinear and elaborate artistic style was developed in early Iron Age Europe in a centre at the Rhine valley which spread all over the continent in no time. Ostentatious living became the way of the rich chieftains following the Classical tradition, and wine drinking from richly ornamented bronze cups became the norm. In the Celtic culture, people often used to feast and drink together, and artistic expressions started to bloom in plates, knives, cauldrons and such other vessels. Weapons and horse-riding gears were also decorated, and the ornamentatinos had mythical and relegious elements as motif in stylized and naturalistic forms. Construction of megalithic monuments continued, as illustrated in the existing carved limestone pillars of the sanctuary at Entremont in France. Torc or twisted metal necklaces became a personal wear, and introduction of  coins provided ample scope for artistic experimentation. The coins were, however, poorly made copies of the Greecian and Roman coins, but the Celtic exuberance was very much there. Burying a person/warrior in his chariot was a practice in China in the 1200 BCE; the Celts did so at the famous Waldalgesheim site in the Rhineland much later, and made flagons and bronze plaques with reclining human figures in what is known as Celtic or La Tene style. The bronze plaques and others had curvy and organic   decorations, presumably after the Classical tendril patterns. This artistic style prevailed in estern Europe and can be seen in the art and architecture of Roman villas. Areas where oman influence never reached, most famously, Ireland and Northumbria this later Iron age rtisic tradition appeared later and continued very much in the historic period.               

 

Africa

According to present state of  information first of the humans were born in Africa, and developed subsequently from that continent. It seems the first band of hunter-gatherers roamed the dales, vales, and plains there. But, there are few sites witness to the great flowering of Upper Palaeolithic art and culture, apart fom the odd venus figurine from Morocco and the controversial Blombos cave. Any way , there are pointers that the hominids staying there had much better conception of the world around, than hitherto assumed. Still, Bushman cave and rock paintings are there in Wateberg, an area near thePalala River. The rock carvings depict a wide range of wild animals, especially antelopes, along with human motifs in a clear, uncluttered manner.

 

Americas

 

Societal hierarchies of fascinating complexity, monumental architecture for civic and religious purposes, generally permanent or urban settlements and agriculture, all created without any outside influence, were the significant characteristics of the pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas. By the time the first permanent European settlers had arrived (between late fifteenth and early sixteenth century CE), many of these civilizations had ceased to function. These are now known only through archaeological investigations. Some contemporaries of them are also found in the historical accounts of the time. The Mayan Civilization had a script in which they had set their records. The invading Europeans regarded such texts as blasphemous and heretical to Christianity and burnt them in pyres. Somehow a few, presumably, hidden texts survived providing the modern historian with tantalising vistas of ancient culture and knowledge. 

 

Mesoamerican :-  Mesoamerica is an environmentally similar region where for more than three thousand years various ancient cultures having nearly similar views on art, architecture, religious beliefs and technology flourished and left their imprints and marks for posterity. Formation of complex cultures began in Mesoamerica circa 1800 BCE, and continued for the next 1500 years. Some of them made progress and gave rise to advanced pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations like the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Huastec, Purepecha, Toltec and Mexica, and continued for about 4,000 years before the first encounter with the Europeans. Such indigenous civilizations built pyramids and temples; created highly accurate calendars by abacus calculations along with a complex theology; made significant progress in astronomy, engineering, fine arts, intensive agriculture, medicine and writing; and discovered the wheel. As they did not possess any animal to drag loads, the wheel was used only as a toy. They knew how to work on metals and used copper and gold obtained locally to make various objects. They excelled in counting and devised one of the most complex counting system in the world with a base of 20 number system. Archaic inscriptions on rocks and rock walls of northern Mexico, particularly in the province of Nuevo Leon, are testimonies to their expertise in counting and number systems. Astronomical events influenced the Mexican Natives to a great extent, and those very early and ancient counting marks were associated with astronomical activities long before the Europeans came on the scene. It would appear that the Mexican based civilizations coming later built their ceremonial centres and cities by taking into account specific astronomical events.

 

Oceania

 

Indigenous Australians, beginning with the first settlers from Asia had a distinctive artistic tradition visible in their rock paintings. For instance, there is the class of paintings known as x-ray paintings, in which the bones and organs of the subject depicted are shown. As some kind of abstraction generally forms their art theme, to the modern viewer the works often appear to be abstract art. They represent environment and landscape by geometrical figures and shapes and generally show that on a plan view, that is, a bird's eye view. For example, in an Aboriginal work, a swirl means a watering hole. In Western Austrslia, there are rock paintings known as the Bradshaws.Drawn in fine details with accurate anatomical proportions, the works are17,000 years old, and the identity of the creators remains a matter of controversy. Likewise, the Polynesian Natives also left behind a clearly different artistic heritage. As their artefacts were generally made with organic materials, most of them were lost due to decay. Those made from bone and clay are strikingly beautiful, as is evident from the shards of pottery dating to late 2nd millennium BCE. Also left behind in the Polynesian islands, are stone platforms and ancestor sculptures. The marvelous statues located in the Easter Islands belong to this group.

 

Music

 

Music as culture arrived quite late, very late in the geological time scale, and prehistoric music can be defined as all of the world's music which was there before anything was known about them. Examples of this are the traditional Native American music of the pre-literate tribes and the music of the Indigenous Australians or Aborigines. Ancient music took the place of prehistoric music in Europe around 1500 BCE and later in other European influenced areas. It is, however, customary to call the music of the non-European continents, notably the music which is surviving, as folk or indigenous or traditional music It is not known how or when music was first played or sung because there is no record of it. Generally, however, it is believed that music evolved from naturally occurring rhythms and sounds like the murmur of a brook, the crash of a thunder and the sigh of wind, borrowing from them patterns, repitition and tonality. Not only birds sing and trill, but also monkeys have been seen to beat on hollow logs to produce percussive sounds. It is said that they do so to establish authority over a certain territory (as far as the sound is heard, perhaps), but in the effort there is a whiff of creativity and an attempt to start a call and response dialogue. With regard to musical instrument, the human voice is the first one ever. It produces a wide variety of sounds, from singing, humming and whistling to clicking, coughing and yawning. There is a Neanderthal hyoid (u-shaped bone in the neck supporting the tongue) 60,000 years old and a bone flute dating 50,000 years,  giving the impression that music was played at that time. As, however , both the specimens are one of their kind, no definite conclusion is possible.    

 

It seems the first rhythmic percussive sound was produced by clapping of hands, by hitting stones together and so on. Theoretically, music can be traced to the Oldowan era of the Palaeothic period, the anthropological and archaeological time when stone tools were first used by hominids. Work noises like pounding of seeds and roots into food can also be regarded as rhythmic sounds made by early humans.

 

General relation to culture, function, complexity and style are the important features of prehistoric music, which generally vary from one place to the other. In a clay tablet, stated to be 4,000 years old, the world's earliest known song is inscribed in Assyrian cuneiform script. Adiatonic composition, it is also the oldest example of harmony in the manner of English gymel. It, however, cannot be called prehistoric because it is a written piece.  As regards the oldest notated song from anywhere in the western world,  the First Delphic Hymn is undoubtedly the earliest surviving example.

  

The oldest flute is the controversial "Neanderthal Flute" discovered in 1995 in the Divje Cave, Idrijca Valley, Western Slovenia. Found in thefifth Mousterian level of the Palaeolithic period, the flute is a hollow femur of a baby cave bear. It is estimated to be 43,000 years old and has holes as in a flute. There is no unanimity on the opinion that it is a man made flute of bone: others feel that it is a carnivore chewed-up piece. At the period of its date, there was neither a method for making holes on a bone, nor was the conceoptual idea of a flute developed. There are weak indications, the number of which are steadily increasing with new finds that the Neanderthal Man was much closer to modern humans intellectually than thought previously.     

Recently (1999) at Henan , China, several Gudis (literary meaning, bone flute) dating 9,000 BCE and having 5 to 8 holes each have been found. They were made from the hollow bones of the bird, the Red-crowned Crane. One of the flutes was found still playable and produced both the five- or seven-note scale of Xia  Zhi  and six-note scale of Qing Shang of the ancient ancient  Chinese musical system.    

   

Cycladic culture

 

Cyclades are a group of small islands in the Aegean Sea. In the island named Keros among them, two marble statues from the late Neolithic culture (in this instance, called Early Cycladic culture) were discovered in a single excavation in the 19th century CE.  The statues are those of a standing double-flute player and a sitting musician playing a triangular-shaped lyre or harp and were scul

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Where can I buy cheap, natural, rocks and minerals?

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Iron Pyrites

Sulfuric acid

Although sulfuric acid is one of the most commonly used chemicals, it was probably little known before the 16 th century. Was prepared by Johann Van Helmont (c.1600) by destructive distillation of green vitriol (ferrous sulfate) and fire and brimstone. The first demand of the main industrial sulfuric acid was the Leblanc process for making sodium carbonate (developed c.1790). Sulphuric acid is produced in Nordhausen of vitriol green, but it was expensive.

A synthesis process for burning sulfur with saltpeter (potassium nitrate) was first used by Johann Glauber in the 17th century. and developed commercially by Joshua Ward in England c.1740. He was soon replaced by the lead chamber process, invented by John Roebuck in 1746 and since improved by many others. The contact process was originally developed c.1830 by Peregrine Phillips in England, was little used until the need for concentrated acid arose, particularly the manufacture of synthetic organic dyes.

When pure, acid sulfuric acid is a clear, colorless, oily. One hundred percent of H2SO4 has a melting point at 10 ° C, when heated, emits SO3 until acid concentration was reduced to 98.5%, and then boiled at a constant temperature of 338 ° C. considerable evolution of heat is produced when concentrated sulfuric acid is diluted with water. Substantial amounts of SO3 can be dissolved in acid. The resulting solution is commercially known as sulfuric acid fuming.

Sulfuric acid does not occur as a free acid in nature. Found only in the form of its salts (sulphate): gypsum, Epsom salts, barite and Glauber's salt. Until the eighteenth century, sulfuric acid was made by heating alum (potassium aluminum sulfate) or iron vitriol (ferrous hydrated sulfate).

This method was replaced by the combustion of natural sulfur with saltpeter, which eventually became the lead chamber process call which has the advantage that the acid can be obtained at any concentration, while the highest concentration possible in the lead chamber process is 78%.

The contact process is as follows, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is obtained by roasting iron pyrites (FeS2) in a rotary kiln, left out of the kiln or fluidized bed furnace. Which of these types of furnaces are used depends on the particle size and nature of the Pyrite to be processed. When the process gases toast has cooled in the gas lines for heat radiation of 1000 ° C to 400 ° C -500 ° C, containing powder is removed by electrostatic precipitators (Electricians).

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For more information, please visit: www.mechanicalebook.com/topics/topics/sulphuric.htm

which of the iron compounds that follow contain the highest percentage of iron?

pyrite (FeS2) hematite (Fe2O3) or siderite (FeCO3)? thanks amooo! : D

Fe2O3 contains more iron why? because the relationship between the molecular weight of iron and other atoms are the highest among all pension funds of the proposed molecules (which contains two iron atoms + no + no carbon sulfide is higher in molecular weight of oxygen)

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